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L'un l'autre, EACH OTHER; pl. les uns les

autres, ONE ANOTHER. Ils s'aiment l'un l'autre.

They love each other.
Ils se trompent les uns les autres. They deceive one another.

(4.) L’un et l'autre, BOTH; l'un ou l'autre, EITHER;

ni l'un ni l'autre, NEITHER. J'achète l'un et l'autre.

I buy both. J'achète l'un ou l'autre.

I buy either the one or the other. Je ne veux ni l'un ni l'autre. I will have neither.


On, ONE, SOME ONE, PEOPLE, THEY. On represents, indefinitely, some person or persons, as subject of the verb. It requires the verb in the third person singular. On n'est pas toujours maître de One is not always master of him. soi.

self. On vous appelle.

Some one calls you. Que dit-on de cela ?

What do people say of that? On n'en parle pas.

They do not speak of it.

After et, si, ou, où, and some other words, the letter l'is often used before on (l'on), for the sake of euphony. On va et l'on vient.

They go and come.

(6.) Personne, NOBODY (requires ne before the verb). Je n'ai vu personne.

I have seen nobody. Personne n'a parlé de cela. No one has spoken of that.


Quelqu'un, SOMEBODY, ANYBODY. Quelqu'un vous demande. Somebody is inquiring for you.

REM. Quelqu'un is not used in a negative sense. We should not say: je n'ai pas vu quelqu'un, but je n'ai vu personne, 1 huve not seen anybody.

(8.) Quelques-uns, f. quelques-unes, SOME, A FEW. Je connais quelques-uns de ces I know some of those gentlemen

messieurs. Je prends quelques-unes de ces I take a few of these engravings

gravures. J'en prends quelques-unes. I take a few of them,


Un de, f. une de, ONE OF.
Un de nos élèves est absent. One of our scholars is absent.
Une de ses scurs est malade. One of his sisters is sick.

(10.) Aucun; pas un; nul (ne), NONE, NO ONE. Aucune de ces dames n'est ici. Not one of those ladies is here. Pas un de ces élèves ne sait la Not one of those scholars knows leçon.

the lesson. Nul au monde ne le sait.

No one in the world knows it.


Plusieurs, SEVERAL, MANY.

J'ai vu plusieurs de vos amis.
J'en ai vu plusieurs.

I have seen several of your friends.
I have seen several of them.

(12.) Tel, f. telle, SUCH A ONE, MANY A ONE. Tel rit aujourd'hui qui pleurera Many a one laughs to-day who will demain.

weep to-morrow, REM. Tel is also used as a noun: Monsieur un tel, Mr. Such-a-one; Madame une telle, Mrs. So-and-so.

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Tout, ALL, EVERYTHING. Il a tout ce qu'il veut.

He has all (that which) he wishes. Il m'a tout dit.

He has told me everything. REM. Tout is also used as a noun. Le tout produit un bel effet, the whole produces a fine effect.

Vocabulary 19.
Le salon, the drawing-room ; the Frappé, knocked ; struck.

Sonné, rung.
Un fauteuil, an arm-chair. Il sonne, he rings.
Une chaise, a chair.

On sonne, the bell rings.
Un éventail, a fan.

Demandé, asked for. Un paquet, a packet; a bundle. Il demande, he asks for; he in. Un défaut, a defect; a fault. quires for. Une composition, a composition. Il vaut, it is worth, Ensemble, together.

Parlez, speak. Seul, alone.

Prenez, take.

Exercise 19.

1. A-t-on sonné ? 2. On a frappé à la porte. 3. On vous demande. 4. On a apporté un paquet pour vous.

5. Ne parlez pas des défauts d'autrui. 6. Chacun a les siens. 7. Chacun est maître chez soi. 8. Chacune de ces maisons vaut dix mille piastres. 9. Ces deux élèves sont toujours ensemble. 10. On ne voit jamais l'un sans l'autre. 11. Ils sont l'un et l'autre très-studieux. 12. Voici deux éventails; prenez l'un ou l'autre. 13. Je ne veux ni l'un ni l'autre. 14. J'en ai déjà* plusieurs. 15. Plusieurs de nos élèves sont absents. 16. Y -t-il quelqu'un avec M. votre père au salon ? 17. Il n'y a personn3 avec lui; il y est seul. 18. On a apporté des fauteuils; en avezvous acheté ? 19. J'en ai acheté quelques-uns. 20. Quelques-unes de nos chaises sont cassées. 21. Pas une de ces compositions n'est sans fautes. 22. Nul ne sait cela mieux que lui. 23. Il m'a tout dit. 24. J'ai tout vu.

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Theme 19. 1. The bell rings. 2. Some one calls me. 3. There is some one in the parlor who inquires for you. 4. They have

. brought the arm-chair. 5. Every one has his faults. 6.

6 Every one works for himself (soi). 7. Each one of these paintings is worth five hundred dollars. 8. Those are two good friends; one always* sees them together. 9. The one is never without the other. 10. I am never alone at home; there is always somebody with me. 11. Take either of these two fans. 12. I don't like either (I like neither). 13. Have you seen anybody ? 14. I have not seen anybody (see (7.) Rem.). 15. Nobody has been at the office. 16. Several

your friends have been here. 17. I have seen several of them. 18. Some of them have left the city. 19. I have bought a few of these chairs. 20. One of these compositions is without mistakes. 21. Not one of you has done better than Mr. Such-a-one. 22. He knows everything. 23. I have told him all.



THE VERB. - INFINITIVE MODE. 1. There are four different classes or conjugations of verbs, distinguished by the endings of the infinitive mode. The infinitive-endings are:

In the 1st conjugation, er, as: couper, to cut.
In the 2d conjugation, ir, as : finir, to finish.
In the 3d conjugation, oir, as : recevoir, to receive.
In the 4th conjugation, re, as : vendre, to sell.

* Put the adverb after the verb.

+ See Introduction, p. 18, 17.

A verb consists of two parts, the root and the ending. The root is what remains after striking off the infinitiveending, as: couper, root coup, ending er.

A verb is regular when it is inflected in all its modes and tenses, according to the model verb of the conjugation to which it belongs.

A verb is irregular when it deviates, in the formation of any of its modes or tenses, from the model verb of the conjugation to which it belongs.

The above four verbs: 1. Couper, 2. Finir, 3. Recevoir, 4. Vendre, are given as model verbs of the four conjugations respectively.

REM. Irregular verbs will be marked, in the vocabularies in this book by an asterisk, thus : *Aller, to go.

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When two verbs are joined in construction, the one dependent on the other, the first verb governs the second in the infinitive.

(1.) Some verbs govern the infinitive directly, as: Je veux couper l'arbre.

I will cut the tree. Je vais le couper.

I am going to cut it.

(2.) Some verbs require the preposition à before the de. pendent infinitive.

J'ai beaucoup à faire.
J'aime à travailler.

I have a great deal to do.
I like to work.

(3.) Some verbs require the preposition de before the dependent infinitive.

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