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Je cesse de travailler.

I cease working.
Je crains de vous offenser. I fear to offend you.

REM. In English, prepositions, except to, are followed by the presa ent part

e; in French, prepositiops govern the verb in the infini. tive mode, except the preposition en, in.

3.

THE INFINITIVE AFTER NOUNS.

A verb limiting the sense of a noun, is put in the infipi. tive, and is preceded by the preposition de. Je n'ai pas le temps de sortir. I have no time to go out.

4.

POUR BEFORE THE INFINITIVE. The preposition pour, to, in order to, is used hefore the infinitive to express a purpose. Je viens ici pour vous dire. I come here to tell you. Il est trop malade pour sortir. He is too sick to go out. Je n'ai pas assez d'argent pour I have not money enough to buy

acheter votre bateau.

your boat.

Vocabulary 20. Trouver, to find

Recevoir, to receive Copier, to copy.

*Voir, to see. Étudier, to study.

Vendre, to sell. Travailler, to work.;

Attendre, to wait; to wait for Offenser, to offend.

*Dire (de),t to say; to tell. Acheter, to buy.

*Lire, to read. *Aller, to go.

*Écrire (de),t to write. *Envoyer, to send.

*Faire, to do; to make. Finir, to finish.

Je peux; il peut, I can; he can. *Venir, to come.

Je cesse (de)t, I cease. *Sortir, to go out ; to come out. Je prie (de),t I pray; I beg ; I ask. *Partir, to start; to leave.

Je crains (de),t I fear; I am afraid.

+ Thoso verbs require the preposition de before the dependent infinitive.

Le temps, the time; the weather. À midi, at noon.
L'intention, the intention. Demain, to morrow.

Exercise 20. 1. Je veux couper l'arbre.

2. Je vais le couper.

3. Je vais inir mon ouvrage. 4. Je peux le finir ce matin. 5. Je ne peux pas recevoir ce monsieur. 6. Je n'ai pas le temps de le voir. 7. Avez-vous beaucoup à faire ? 8. J'ai deux lettres à écrire, et trois à copier. 9. J'aime à lire, mais je n'aime

pas

à étudier. 10. Je cesse de travailler à midi. 11. Je vous prie de venir chez moi. 12. Je n'ai pas le temps d'aller chez vous.

13. Mon frère m'a écrit de lui envoyer. les journaux. 14. J'ai l'intention de partir demain. 15. Il n'a pas la patience de nous attendre. 16. Vous n'avez pas le courage de lui dire cela. 17. Je crains de l'offenser. 18. Il est ici pour vendre son cheval. 19. Je n'ai pas assez d'argent pour l'acheter. 20. Je viens pour vous dire que le professeur est malade. 21. Il est trop malade pour sortir.

Theme 20. 1. He will cut the tree. 2. He is going to cut it this morning. 3. I wish to finish

my

work. 4. I can finish it at noon. 5. He will not receive us. 6. He says that he cannot see us.

17. He has too much to do. 8. I have several letters to copy.

9. I like to study, but I do not like to work. 10. I cease reading now.

11. I have no time to write this exercise. 12. He intends (He has the intention) to come here to-night. 13. I have no time to go to the post-office. 14. I am going to leave to-morrow. 15. 1 intend to send this letter to my uncle. 16. I beg you to

17. Tell him (Dites-lui) to sell his boat. 18. I am

do so.

afraid to offend him. 19. Will you buy it? 20. I have not money enough to buy it. 21. I am too sick to go out to-day.

TWENTY-FIRST LESSON

THE PARTICIPLE.*

1. A verb has two participles, the present and the past.

The present participle, which ends in English in ing, ends in French in ant.

The past participle of regular verbs ends, in the first conjugation in é, in the second in i, in the third and fourth,

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The present participle is not so much used in French as in English. It is principally used with the preposition en, in, which is the only preposition that may be followed by the present participle : en allant, in going; en venant, in coming ; en passant, in passing. J'ai vu votre frère en allant à la I saw your brother when I was poste.

going to the post-office. J'y ai pensé en venant.

I thought of it while I was coming. Il m'a dit le bonjour en passant. He said good day when he was

passing.

• Introduction, p. 17.

The present participle, qualifying a noun, is called a participial, or verbal, adjective. Un enfant charmant.

A charming child.
Une histoire intéressante.

An interesting story.
REM. The verbal adjective is generally placed after the noun.

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The past participle is used in connection with an auxiliary verb, to form compound tenses (p. 92–2.). J'ai cassé le plat.

I have broken the dish. The past participle of active verbs is an adjective when it is joined in construction with the verb être, and also when it is used without a verb. In the latter case, it is placed after the noun. Le plat est cassé.

The dish is broken. Un plat cassé.

A broken dish,

4.

AGREEMENT OF THE PAST PARTICIPLE. The past participle agrees with the noun to which it refers, in gender and number, the same as an adjective, in accordance with the following three rules:

(1.) The past participle, joined in construction to the tenses of the verb être, to be, agrees with the subject of the verb. Le plat est cassé.

The dish is broken. Les plats sont cassés.

The dishes are broken. (2.) The past participle used without an auxiliary verb, agrees with the noun to which it refers. Un plat cassé.

A broken dish. Une assiette cassée.

A broken plate. Des assiettes oasséch.

Broken plates.

(3.) The past participle of a transitive verb agrees with the direct object of the verb, when the direct object precedes the participle. J'ai reçu la lettre.

I have received the letter. Je l'ai reçue ce matin.

I received it this morning. Voici la lettre que j'ai reçue. Here is the letter which I received.

The direct object, in the above sentences, is in italic.

Vocabulary 21.
Abîmer, to spoil (a thing). Un bijoutier, a jeweler.
Gâter, to spoil.

Une croix, a cross.
Déchirer, to tear.

Une chaîne, a chain. Mouiller, to wet.

Bonjour, good morning; good day; Ôter, to take off; to take away. dire le bonjour, to say good day. Passer, to pass.

Hier, yesterday. Rencontrer, to meet.

Amusant, amusing. Saluer, to bow.

Charmant, charming.
*Rire, riant, ri, to laugh, laughing, Intéressant, interesting.
laughed.

Déjà, already.
Un horləger, a watchmaker. Pas encore, not yet.

Exercise 21. 1. J'ai rencontré votre frère en allant à la poste. 2. J'ai laissé votre croix chez le bijoutier en venant. 3. J'ai dit à Charles, en passant, de venir ici ce matin. 4. Le professeur nous a dit d'étudier la leçon en l'attendant. 5. Marie m'a salué en riant. 6. Je lui ai dit le bonjour en passant. %. Nous avons lu une histoire intéressante. 8. C'est un livre amusant. 9. Votre petite nièce est charmante. 10. Elle a déchiré sa robe. 11. Elle va ôter sa robe déchirée. 12. J'ai ôté mon habit mouillé. 13. Mes gravures sont abîmées. 14. Jules les a mouillées. 15. Ce sont des enfants gâtés.

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