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16. Ma chaîne est cassée. 17. Je l'ai cassée hier. 18. Je vais porter cette chaîne cassée chez l'horloger. 19. Voici la lettre que j'ai reçue. 20. Je ne l'ai pas encore lue. 21. Vous ne nous avez pas attendus. 22. A qui a-t-il vendu sa maison? 23. Il l'a vendue à M. Larue. 24. Vos spurs sont ici; je les ai vues. 25. La pièce est déjà finie.

Theme 21. 1. I saw (have seen) Charles in coming. 2. He (bas) bowed in passing, but he did not speak. 3. In going to the office, I (have) left your broken chain at the jeweler's. 4. Will you read the newspaper while waiting? 5. I met Julia this morning. 6. She said good-day laughing. 7. This is an interesting story. 8. I have read it twice. 9. That piece is charming. 10. Your drawings are spoiled. 11. That spoiled child tore (has torn) them.' 12. That is very amusing. 13. My dress is wet. 14. I am going to take it off. 15. We have taken off our wet clothes. 16. My cross is broken. 17. Henry broke (has broken) it yesterday. 18. He is going to take it (carry it) to the watchmaker's. 19. I have received his letter, but I have not yet read it. 20. We have not yet sold our house, but we intend to sell it. 21. The lesson is already finished.

TWENTY-SECOND LESSON.

AUXILIARY VERBS. - CONJUGATION OF AVOIR, TO HAVE.

1. Verbs are subject to four different modifications, to indicate mode, tense, person and number.

These several modifications are, in some tenses, expressed by the verb itself, in others, by the help of an auxiliary verb; the former are called simple, the latter compound, tenses.

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There are two auxiliary verbs: avoir, to have, and être, to be. They are auxiliary verbs, only, when they are used in the formation of compound tenses.

a. Avoir is used in the compound tenses of
(1.) All active verbs;
(2.) Most neuter verbs;

(3.) Those impersonal verbs which are not used as personal verbs, and which may be called essential impersonal verbs.

6. Etre is used

(1.) In the formation of the compound tenses of certain neuter verbs; those generally whose past tenses express a change in the condition or position of the subject;

(2.) In the formation of the compound tenses of all pronominal verbs;

(3.) In the formation of the passive verb.

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To coujugate a verb is to write or recite it, with all its modifications of mode, tense, person and number. This may be done in four different ways: 1. affirmatively; 2. negatively; 3. interrogatively; and 4. interrogatively and negatively.

In this lesson, we shall study the conjugation of the verb avoir, to have, and in the next, the conjugation of the verb être, to be ; because these verbs are used as auxiliaries in the conjugation of other verbs.

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PAST DEFINITE.

PAST ANTERIOR.

J'eus
Tu eus
Il eat
Nous eames
Vous etes
Ils eurent

I had
thou hadst

he had
we had
you had
they had

J'eus en
Tu eus eu
Il eut eu
Nous eîmes en
Vous eûtes eu
Ils eurent eu

I had had thou hadet had

he had haa we had had you had had they had had

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SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.
PRESENT.

PAST.
Que j'aie

that I may have Que j'aie eu Que tu aies

that thou mayst have Que tu aies eu Qu'il ait

that he may have Qu'il ait eu
Que nous ayons that we may have Que nous ayons eu
Que vous ayez that you may have Que vous ayez eu
Qu'ils aient

that they may have Qu'ils aient eu

that I may that thou mayst

that he may that we may that you may that they may

have had

IMPERFECT.

Que j'euese

that I might have Que tu eusses that thou mightst have Qu'il eût

that he might have Que nous eussions that we might have Que vous eussiez that you might have Qu'ils eussent that they might have

PLUPERFECT.
Que j'eusse en

that I Que tu eusses eu

that thou Qu'il eînt eu

that he
Que nous eussions eu

that we
Que vous eussiez eu
Qu'ils eussent eu

that they

might have had

that you

+ The subjunctive mode in French is very different from the subjunctive mode in English. The English forms, that I may have, that I might have, do not give an adequate idea of the meaning of the subjunctive in French. The following sertence, taken from Exercise 22 : Je ne veux pas que tu aies mon dictionnaire, if translated into English, according to the above form, would run thus, I do not wish that pas. Ne

REM. 1. The negative conjugation is formed with ne.... is placed before the verb, and pas after it (28–3). In compound tenses, ne stands before the auxiliary verb, and pas between the auxiliary and the past participle: Je n'ai pas; Je n'ai pas eu. See also Lesson Twenty-ninth.

REM. 2. A verb is conjugated interrogatively, by placing the pronoun subject, with a hyphen, after the verb. See, for full treatment Lesson Twenty-ninth.

Vocabulary 22.

Le bonheur, good luck ; good for- Congé, (m.), leave; permission; tune.

avoir congé, to have leave; to Le malheur, bad luck; misfor- have a holiday. tune.

Avoir besoin de, to have need of. Le plaisir, the pleasure.

Avoir soint de, to take care of. La bonté, the kindness.

Avoir envie de, to have a wish La prudence, the prudence.

(for); a desire, a mind (to). Beau temps, fine weather.

Fermer, to shut. La pluie, the rain.

Perdre, to lose.
De l'orage (m.), a storm.

Dîner, to dine.
Le prix, the price; the prize. Dernier, dernière, last.
La promenade, the walk; walk. Prudent, prudent.

ing; aller à la promenade, to Si (s' before il and ils), if; whether go for a walk.

Je voudrais, I should like; I wish.

thou mayst have my dictionary, whereas the proper English is, I do not wish thee to hare my dictionary. And again the following sentence taken from Theme 22: He wishes that I should have pleasure, might lead the learner to suppose that should have is to be translated by the conditional mode, whereas the present of the sub. junctive is required. In translating from French into English, the student should, regardless of the French construction, give the correct English ; and again, in trans. lating from English into French, he should not adhere to the words in the English text, but rather be guided, for the present, by the heading of the section, and construe the French sentences accordingly.

+ We say in French : J'ai bien soin, for, I take good care, using an adverb instead of an adjective, because the expression avoir soin is equivalent to a verb.

| Dernier, last, meaning the preceding, is placed after the noun ; lundi dernier, last Monday.

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