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allowed me to make constant reference to them in all difficulties and have been unreserved in their readiness to put their knowledge and judgement at my disposal. In particular I feel that most of what is of any value in the account of the Armenian rite is due to Dr. Baronian. At the same time I must relieve them from all responsibility in detail: I have dealt freely with what they have supplied me with and have used my own judgement, so far as I was capable of one, sometimes without consulting them, and in some cases I have maintained my own judgement in opposition to theirs. For the Slavonic words in the Glossary I am indebted to the Rev. E. Smirnoff. Besides this I have to acknowledge the courtesy of many librarians, and in particular to thank the Rev. Padre Antonio Rocchi, Librarian of Grotta Ferrata, for answers to many questions and for the hospitality of his illustrious House. And finally I return my best thanks for the revision of various parts of the proofs to the Most Reverend the Archbishop of the Jordan and my friends the Rev. Roland Allen and Mr. C. H. Turner.

F. E. B.

FEAST OF S. THOMAS 1895.

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INTRODUCTION

1.

THE SYRIAN RITE, p. xvii.
A. The Apostolic Constitutions, p. xvii.

i. Structure and Sources, p. xviii.
ii. The Compiler, p. xxiv.
iii. The Liturgical forms, p. xxix.

1. The Clementine Liturgy, p. xxix.

2. The order of the Liturgy in the second book, p. xlvi. B. The Greek Liturgies, p. xlviii. C. The Syriac Liturgies, p. lv.

II. THE EGYPTIAN RITE, p. Ixiii.

A. The Greek Liturgies, p. Ixiii.
B. The Coptic Liturgies, p. lxvii.
C. The Abyssinian Liturgies, p. Ixxii.

III. THE PERSIAN RITE, p. lxxvii.

IV. THE BYZANTINE RITE, p. Ixxxi.

A. The Orthodox Liturgies, p. Ixxxi.
B. The Armenian Liturgies, p. xcvi.

INTRODUCTION

I. THE SYRIAN RITE

A. THE APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS

The Apostolic Constitutions are a manual of ecclesiastical life, a body of law and ethics and in some degree of doctrine 5 applied, enforced and illustrated by instruction, exhortation and example, purporting to come from the mouths of the apostles, speaking now collectively and now individually, and to be given to the world through S. Clement (Ap. Const. vi. 18: Ap. Can. 85). In the course of them there occur a number of liturgical forms, 10 and in particular the so-called Clementine Liturgy and the outline in the second book, both of which are given below. These forms come to us therefore not as the libelli of a living rite, but as chapters in an apocryphal literary work: and it follows, first that they have not been subject to the processes 15 of development which affect all living rites, and therefore that they still preserve unchanged the form in which they were originally incorporated in the Constitutions: and secondly that any inquiry into their sources, date and significance must start from the question of the origin and composition of the 23 work of which they form a part. They therefore require a treatment at this point different from that of the rest of the documents contained in this volume.

b

For the sources of the text see Lagarde Constitutiones apostolorum Lips. et Lond. 1862, pp. iii. sqq., Ueltzen Constitutiones apostolicae Suerini et Rostochii 1853, pp. 281 sq., Pitra Juris eccl. graec. hist, et mon. i. Romae 1864, p. III; for

editions, Ueltzen pp. xxii. sqq., Pitra p. 112. The text adopted below is 5 Lagarde's (his apparatus gives the readings of all his mss, and of the editio princeps, Turrianus, Venice 1563: Pitra adds the readings of the Vatican mss. and of several editions). The numbering of chapters and sections below is Ueltzen's (Lagarde's chapters do not always correspond with those of Veltzen and Pitra, and neither Lagarde nor Pitra subdivides the chapters).

10

The state of the question, so far as it bears on the present purpose, may be summarised as follows:

The latest and fullest discussion is that of Dr. F. X. Funk die apostolischen Konstitutionen Rottenb. 1891. For the history of the question see pp. 1-27.

i. The Structure and Sources.

15

1. Bks. i-vi are derived, by means of considerable interpolation and some omission and modification, from the Didaskalia Apostolorum, a work of the early third century and of the same general character as the A. C., except that the dogmatic element in the latter is proportionately larger.

20

The Didaskalia is known only through a syriac version published by Lagarde, Didascalia apostolorum syriace Lips. 1854, simultaneously with his reconstruction of the greck in Bunsen Analecta antenicaena ii. Lond. 1854. The original was produced in Syria in the first half of the third century, and perhaps

retouched after the middle of the century : Funk pp. 28 sqq., Harnack Gesch. 2; d. altchristl. Litteratur i, Leipz. 1893, pp. 515 sqq. On Lagarde's reconstruction

see Funk p. 41, and on other sources to which the compiler is indebted for details, pp. 107-112.

A large part of the matter of bks. i-vi is also contained in the Arabic and the Ethiopic Didaskaliae : but these are derived 30

from A. C.

On the arabic Didaskalia, which is unpublished, see Funk pp. 215 sq.; for the contents, as compared with A. C., pp. 222 sq. The ethiopic is published in Platt The ethiopic didascalia Lond. 1834 (ethiop. and engl.). It is derived from

the arabic, perhaps mediately through a coptic form : see Funk pp. 207 sqq.; 35 contents, pp. 209 sq.

2. Bk. vii. 1-32 is similarly derived from the Teaching of the twelve Apostles, which belongs at least to the second century.

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