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the twelfth century is found in Theodore Balsamon in can. 32 in Trullo p. 193 (Migne P. G. cxxxvii. 621 B) and responsa ad Marcum 1 (ib. cxxxviii. 953): but it was and continued to be known and quoted: see Isaac Armen. Invectiva (twelfth cent.) in Maxima biblioth. patr. xx Lugdun. 1677, p. 1241 C, Bessarion de sacram. Eucharistiae (Migne P. G. clxi. 500 D, 504 A, 514 C, 515 A). Cp. Leo Allatius μμта Colon. Agrip. 1653, pp. 176 sqq. For its use in the jurisdiction of Rome in the eighth or ninth century see the diptych of Flavius Clementinus in the Liverpool collection of ivories (Pulszky Catal. of Fejérváry ivories Liverpool 1856, pp. 40-43: Maskell Ivories Lond. 1875, p. 38: the diptych commemorates 10 P. Hadrian I or II). For other traces of it in the west see the prayers derived from it in French German and Italian ordines in Martène de ant. eccl. ritibus i, Antw. 1736: viz. Domine deus noster qui suscepisti c. 525 (S. Denys, ninth cent.), 532 (Troyes, tenth cent.), 538 (Moissac, tenth cent.) from ‘O @eds å πpoodegáμevos p. 32 below: Domine deus omnipotens c. 494 (Salzburg?), 519 (S. Denys), 530 15 (Troyes) from 'O Beds & Tavтокрάт∞р р. 33: Omn. semp. deus qui es in sanctis and Omn, semp. deus qui es repletus c. 525 (S. Denys) from Zoì tâ ñenλnpwμévo p. 36: Dominator et vivificator c. 523 (S. Denys) from AéσTоta (wonoié p. 40: Domine deus qui es omnium dominator c. 425 (Remiremont, twelfth cent.) and Qui es omnium deus c. 425 (Subiaco, A. D. 1075), 540 (Moissac), 551 (Reims, 20 twelfth cent.) from 'O návrov beós p. 43.
(4) No ancient commentary is known. Among modern writers see Brett A collection of the principal liturgies Lond. 1720, pp. 272-90: Lebrun Explication littérale historique et dogmatique ... de la messe, 2nd ed. Paris 1777, vol. iv. pp. 347-72: Palmer 25 Origines liturgicae, 4th ed., London 1845, pp. 15-44: Trollope
The greek liturgy of S. James &c. Edinb. 1848 (notes and reconstructions): Daniel Cod. lit. iv. Lips. 1853, pp. 80-7: Bunsen Analecta antenicaena iii. Lond. 1854, pp. 27-37.
Among the earlier of the modern writers the authenticity of this liturgy was 30 much disputed, largely in view of its dogmatic use: e. g. De Sainctes in Liturgiae sive missae patrum Antv. 1560, f. 12 sq., Leo Allatius Zúμpuта р. 176 (and in Corpus byzantinum xxv, Venet. 1733), Bona Rerum liturg. lib. i. 8 § 3, Sala on Bona (I. c. t. i. p. 129, Turin 1747) and Benedict XIV de ss. missae sacrif. ii. 3 § 13 (Opera viii. Venet. 1767, p. 29) defend the greek tradition of apostolic authorship; 35 Natalis Alexander Hist. eccl. saec. 1, xii. § 3, S. Basnage Annal. polit. eccles. i. Roterd. 1706, an. 58 c. xv. p. 695, John Lightfoot Opp. posthuma Franeq. 1699, p. 147, Le Nourry Apparat. ad biblioth. max. patr. i, Paris 1703, cc. 24-30, and Lebrun u. s. impugn it. The discussion is scarcely of present interest, but Dr. Neale in Essays on liturgiology Lond. 1863 attempts to argue that the writers 40 of the New Testament quote from the liturgy of S. James.
2. The Presanctified Liturgy of S. James.
The diakonika of this rite, hitherto unknown, are given below in Appendix G from the Sinai ms. Graec. 1040. The prayers are still unknown, but the diakonika are sufficient to indicate the structure of the whole.
On the ms. see M above. The same archbishop Peter (p. 497. 19) is commemorated as in the ordinary liturgy of S. James in the same volume: hence the text of the Presanctified is also of about 1166.
C. THE SYRIAC LITURGIES
In treating of the documents of the Syriac liturgies it is necessary to make 10 two distinctions:
(1) between the several parts of the liturgy, which are commonly contained in separate documents: (a) the ordo communis, the common framework into which the several anaphoras are fitted, including the whole of the mass of the catechumens, the rubrication and certain standing formulae of the mass of the 15 faithful, and the conclusion of the whole (p. 106. 8 sqq. below): (B) the anaphora, with which are included the three prayers of the faithful (pp. 83 sq. below): (7) the liber ministerii containing the diakonika and the standing hymns: (8) the lectionary: (e) the collections of variable sedros.
These divisions generally cross more or less: e.g. the ordo communis is 20 commonly attached to some anaphora, or contain a typical set of lections and some sedros. The collections of proper sedros are not of importance for the present purpose and may be neglected.
(2) between the communions whose use they represent: viz. the Jacobites on the one hand, including the Christians of S. Thomas in Malabar, who now 25 use the Jacobite rite; and the Uniats on the other, whether Syrian, i. e. the Roman community drawn out of the Jacobites since the end of the eighteenth century, or Maronite, i. e. the formerly Monothelete community of the Lebanon which entered the Roman communion in the twelfth century. All these observe the same rite with slight variations in detail.
Similar distinctions mutatis mutandis must be made in respect of the other living oriental liturgies.
1. The Liturgy of S. James
i. Printed texts.
Much of the following is derived from Bickell Conspectus rei syrorum literariae 35 Münster 1871, pp. 65-70.
The Jacobite rite has never been officially printed as a whole nor more than fragments printed at all.
This is only a fragment, attributed to Severus, apparently by a mistaken extension to the liturgy of the authorship of the baptismal office. It has been used for the first part of the text in this volume (pp. 69-74) as giving a variety of usage not hitherto available in english. It has been supplemented as indicated on p. 2; cues have been expanded, and additions, marked by square 10 brackets, made from the other sources there mentioned; and in particular the long prayer on pp. 73 sq. follows the text of (2).
Boderianus' Latin version is reproduced in the Bibliotheca patrum Paris 1575 t. iv, 1589 t. vi, 1654 t. vi, Colon. 1618 t. vii, Lugdun. 1677 t. xii. A latin version of another text is given by Renaudot Lit. or. coll. ii. 12–28 (ed. 1847). 15 English in Hough Christianity in India, vol. iv. Lond. 1845, pp. 623-33, 642-5: Howard The christians of S. Thomas and their liturgies Oxford 1864, pp. 199-221, 250-265 (both from Malabar texts).
a. Ordo communis.
Fabricius Boderianus D. Severi alexandrini . . . de ritibus baptismi et sacrae synaxis apud Syros christianos receptis Antw. 1572 (syr. and lat.).
B. Anaphora of S. JAMES.
No Jacobite text seems to have been published.
Translations: Latin in Renaudot ii. pp. 29-42 reproduced in Fabricius Cod. apocr. N. T. iii. pp. 122-146. English in Hough pp. 633-42: Howard pp. 222– 249 (Malabar texts).
y. Liber ministerii.
No separate document is published, but most of the contents 25 are included in the text or translations above.
(2) Syrian Uniat.
a and B. Ordo communis and Anaphora of S. JAMES. Missale Syriacum iuxta ritum ecclesiae antiochenae syrorum Romae 1843 fo., pp. 1-43, 103-118.
The rubrics are in carshuni; the audible prayers are given both in syriac and carshuni; the inaudible only in syriac. The ordo communis is attached to the anaphora of S. Xystus.
y. Liber ministerii.
Kübad Jhaösh as panto? aosïlo? blo (The book 35 of the clerks used in the ecclesiastical ministries) Beirut 1888 (syriac only).
a. Ordo communis.
Missale chaldaicum iuxta ritum ecclesiae nationis Maronitarum Romae 1592 and 1716. hayul? Jha? Im yo? loico? blo wo? (The book of the oblation according to the rite of the 5 Maronite church of Antioch) Kozhayya 1816 and 1838, Beirut 1888. os? hay?? that? and you less loaf (The order of the oblation according to the rite of the Maronite church of Antioch) Kozhayya 1855.
These have the rubrics in carshuni and some of the formulae in carshuni 10 as well as in syriac. The editions differ in the number and the order of the anaphoras they contain.
Translations: Latin in Renaudot ii. pp. 1-11 (from ms. sources, p. 47): French in Morel Messe des Chaldéens et des Maronites du mont Liban Paris  (on which see Catal. des manuscrits syriaques de la bibliothèque nationale p. 56).
B. Anaphora of S. JAMES.
Missals as above.
In the edd. of 1592 and 1816 (and 1838?) the anaphora of S. James is attached to the ordo communis: in the rest it is placed elsewhere.
Assemani Cod. lit. iv. pp. 131-179.
This is from ms. sources and is all in syriac.
Translations: Latin in Assemani u. s. English in Etheridge The Syrian churches pp. 201-216 (few rubrics).
Y. Liber ministerii.
Liber ministri missae iuxta ritum ecclesiae nationis Maronitarum 25 Romae 1596 and 1715. Diaconale syriacum iuxta ritum ecclesiae nationis Maronitarum Romae 1736. Indyo hanah? blo Worse? Layl? J? (The book of the ministry according to the rite of the Maronite church of Antioch) Kozhayya (several edd.). Assemani Cod. lit. iv. pp. 180-226.
The official editions are in carshuni and syriac; Assemani's, which is from ms. sources, in syriac only.
2. Other Anaphoras
Besides S. James sixty-four Anaphoras are known at least by name, and of many of them either the text or translations or 35 both have been published.
a. The original text of the following has been printed, and translations of some of them.
In the following list S = Missale syriacum; M = the Maronite missal, the numbers indicating the editions in the order of the list above; A = text of 5 Assemani op. cit. iv, vii, A= the latin version in the same; R = Renaudot's latin u. s., F = Fabricius' latin u. s., H= Howard's english u. s., M = Morel's french u s.
1. S. BASILA
2. S. CELESTINE, Journ. sacr.
lit. 1867, p. 332
3. S. CYRIL ALEX. M.2 ARA
7. S. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM M2R 8. JOHN OF HARRAN († 1165) or Jo. CHRYS. ii S M'RH 9. S. JOHN EVANG. MR FM 20 10. JOHN MARO (+707) M2-6
15 6. S. EUSTATHIUS i
12. S. MARK
II. S. LUKE or TWELVE APO-
17. ROMAN CHURCHC
Derived from the Greek. The Latin version in Ren. and Assem. is that of Andr. Masius, Antw. 1569, reprinted in the Bibliotheca patrum Paris 1575, t. iv, 1589 and 1654, t. vi. b Called by mistake Dionys. Areop.' in M'. c In part composed of extracts translated from the Roman missal. It occurs in ms. 25 Brit. Mus. Syr. 10042.
B. The following have been published only in translations.
20. S. CLEMENT OF ROME
30. JAMES OF Edessa († 708)
21. DIOSCORUS ALEX.
31. JAMES OF Serugh († 521) i
22. DIOSCORUS OF KARDU (fl. 32. JOHN OF BOSTRA († 650) 30 1285)
23. THE DOCTORS
33. JOHN BAR MA'DANI († 1263)
38. MOSES BAR KEPHA (+903)
25. S. GREGORY NAZIANZ. 35 26. S. IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH 27. IGNAT. IBN WAHIB (1304) 28. S. JAMES iia
29. JAMES BURDE ANA (+578)