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Translations: Latin in Assemani, pp. 157-84 (from Tuki's text). A latin version of a sahidic fragment corresponding to pp. 168. 34-173. 19 below is given in Hyvernat 11. s. pp. 11-13, from the Borgian ms, above.

(5) Other Anaphoras.

A. A. Giorgi Fragmentum evangelii S. Joannis graecocopto- 5 thebaicum: additamentum...divinae missae, cod. diaconici reliquiae et liturgica alia fragmenta ... Romae 1789, pp. 304-15.

This contains the sahidic text and a latin version of a fragment of an anaphora otherwise unknown, from the Borgian ms, mentioned above. A corrected latin version is given by Hyvernat u. s. pp. 15-19. The codex diaconicus, pp. 353-66 10 (Zoega, no, ci), a collection of greek diakonika, is the source of the insertions marked ? in the text of S. Mark below, pp. 139-41.

Hyvernat Canon-Fragmente der altkoptischen Liturgie Rom 1888, pp. 8–10, 14 sq., 20-24.

This contains a latin version of five fragments from the same ms. (Zoega, 15 nos. c, cx). The Inclination Gratias agimus tibi p. 23 is a form of the prayer in the Ethiopic liturgy Pilot of the soul p. 243 below: cp. Renaudot i. p. 494, Ludolfus ad suam hist, aeth. Comment. p. 345.

(y) The Lectionary.

Mai Scriptorum veterum nova collectio iv (2) Romae 1831, 20 pp. 15-34: Malan The holy Gospel and versicles for every sunday and other feast day in the year; as used in the Coptic church (Original documents of the Coptic church iv) Lond. 1874 : Lagarde in Abhandlungen d. historisch-philologischen Classe d. königl. Gesellsch. d. Wissenschaften zu Göttingen xxiv, Göttingen 25 1879: Maspéro in Recueil de travaux relatifs à la philologie et à l'archéologie égyptiennes et assyriennes vii, Paris 1886, p. 144.

(1) Mai gives the table of Gospels for feasts and fasts and for saturdays, sundays, wednesdays and fridays of the year from Vat. Arab. xv, reprinted from Assemani Biblioth. apostol. Vatic. cod. mss. catalogus iii (2), pp. 16-41. 30 (2) Malan gives the sunday Gospels and versicles for vespers, matins and liturgy for the year, from a coptic-arabic ms. (The .versicles' of the liturgy are variables corresponding to p. 159. 30 sq. below and that sung at the kiss of peace p. 163. 35.) The table of Gospels is reprinted in Dict. christian antiq. Pp. 959-61. (3) Lagarde tabulates all the lections and the psalms for the months 35 athor to mechir and epepi to the little month (i. e. approximately novemb. to feb., and june to aug.), for Lent and the Ninevites' fast, for the sundays of Eastertide and for the principal feasts, from the Göttingen mss. Or. 125. 7-9, 12-15. (4) Maspéro gives a fragment of a table of lections in sahidic.

ii. Manuscripts.

(1) Containing the anaphoras of S. Basil, S. GREGORY and S. CYRIL: Vat. Copt. xvii (A. D. 1288), xxiv (14th c.), xxv (1491), xxvi (1616): Brit. Mus. Suppl.

arab. 18 (xii), Add. 17725 (1811): Bodl. Huntingt. 360 (xiii, the text translated 5 below), Marsh 5 (xiv), Marshall 93 (xviii) : Paris Copt. xxvi, xxviii, xxxi. (2)

S. Bas. and S. GREG.: Paris Copt. xxix, xxxix. (3) S. BAs. and S. CYR.: Bodl. Huntingt. 572 (xiii or xiv). (4) S. Basil: Vat. Copt. xviii (before 1318), xix (1715), lxxviii (1722), Suppl. Copt. Ixxxi (1723), lxxxv (18th c.), lxxxvi (1713):

Paris Copt. xxiv, xxv, xxvii, xxx. (5) S. GREG. and S. CYR. : Vat. Copt. 10 XX (1315), li (undated): Bodl. Huntingt. 403 (xiii or xiv). (6) S. Greg.:

Paris Copt. xl. (7) S. CYRIL: Vat. Copt. xxi (1333), xxii (before 1580): Paris Copt. xli. (8) Pontifical mass at the consecration of the chrism: Vat. Copt. xliv (13th c.). (9) Diaconale: Vat. Copt. xxvii (13th c.), xxviii (1307). (10) Lec

tionary: Vat. Arab. xv (1338) containing the Gospels for the whole year: Vat. 15 Arab. lix (17th c.), Copt. xxix (1712), xxxii (1723), Bodl. Huntingt. 18 (1295),

278 (1349 ?), 89, containing all the lections, and covering in whole or in part the months from thoouth to mechir, i.e. approximately september to february: ib. 26 (1265), Paris Copt. xix, xx, for Lent: Vat. Arab. lx (1673), Copt. xxxi (1711),

xxxiv (c. 1700), Bodl. Huntingt. 5, for Holy Week: ib. 3, for Eastertide: 20 ib. 47, Paris Copt. xxi (?), for sundays in Eastertide and those of the months

pachon to mesore and the little month, i. e. from may to august: Bodl. Huntingt. 254, for the principal feasts : Vat. Copt, xxx (1714), xxxiii (1719), for sundays from Lent to the end of the year: ib. Arab. xxxix (16th c.), for sundays and festivals.

In coptic mss. of the New Testament the divisions and the order of the books 25 correspond to the lection system. The Gospels are commonly in a separate

volume : S. Paul is either in a separate volume or is combined with the rest of the books in the order Paul, Cath. Epp., Acts. The pericopae are sometimes noted in the text. See Gregory in Tischendorf Nov. Test. graece, ed. 8,

iii, Leipz. 1894, pp. 853 sqq. : Scrivener Introd, to the criticism of the New 30 Testament, 4th ed., Lond. 1894, ii, pp. 110 sqq.

(11) Sahidic fragments. Brit. Mus. Or. 3580 is a collection of liturgical fragments, including part of a table of lections; invocations (one of which is a compilation from S. Cyr. and S. Greg.); four collections of prayers of fraction

&c., one of which is the inclination, absolution, fraction and confession of S. 35 Basil ; and two fragments of diakonika, one of them including also an institution and intercession. There are similar collections at Leyden and elsewhere.

See Codd. copt. biblioth. Vatic. in Mai Script. vet. nov. coll. v (2), Romae 1831 : Codd, arab. biblioth. Vatic. in Mai ib. iv (2), Romae 1831: Cureton Catal.cod. mss.

or. Mus. Brit. arab. Lond. 1846: Rieu Suppl. to cat. of arab, mss. in Brit, Mus. 40 Lond. 1894 : Uri Bibl. Bodl. codd. mss. orient. ... catal, i, Oxon. 1787.

iii. History, &c.

(1) The outline in the Arabic Didaskalia given below in Appendix K represents a stage in the history of the Coptic liturgy.

See above pp. Ixvi sq. Illustrations, sometimes dated, of the language of the liturgy are to be found in Revillout's article Les prières pour les morts dans l'épigraphie égyptienne in Revue égyptologique vol. iv, 1885. On the relations of languages, greek coptic and arabic, in Egypt see Quatremère Recherches critiques et historiques sur la langue et la littérature de l'Égypte Paris 1808; Butler The 5 ancient Coptic churches of Egypt Oxford 1884, ii, pp. 250-55; Bp. Lightfoot in Scrivener A plain introd, to the criticism of the New Testament, 4th ed., Lond. 1894, ii, pp. 97-100, with Mr. Headlam's corrections of the account of the coptic dialects, pp. 103-106.

2. Incidental notices from the acts of the saints or elsewhere 10 do not seem to have been collected on a large scale, but many regulations bearing on the liturgy are contained in the constitutions of the patriarchs 'Abdu 'l Masih (Christodulus, 1047-78), Gabriel II (+ 1146) and Cyril III (1235-43), as well as in the so-called Imperial Canons, in the Epitome from the sentences of the 15 fathers, and in the canonical collections of Farāj Allah of Akhmim (Echmimensis, xiith cent.) and Şafi 'l Faņā'il ibn al 'Assāl (Ebnassalus, xiiith cent.). These are unpublished, but are largely quoted in the notes of Renaudot.

Renaudot, in his notes Lil. or. coll. i, pp. 152 sqq., has collected a few 20 incidental notices from historical writers. On the constitutions of Christodulus see Renaudot Hist. patriarch. alexandrin. jacobit. Paris 1713, pp. 420-4, Neale Patriarchate of Alexandria ii. Lond. 1847, p. 213: for those of Gabriel, Ren. p. 511, Neale p. 248: of Cyril, Ren. p. 582: on the Imperial canons, ib. 213, and on Ibn al 'Assāl, ib. 586. The collection of Farāj Allah is in Paris Anc. 25 fonds 120; that of Ibn al 'Assal in Anc. fonds 121-123, Suppl. arab. 84, 85; that of Maqāra, containing the Imperial canons, in Suppl. arab. 78, 83.

3. There are several arabic Commentaries from which Renaudot quotes largely, otherwise unpublished: especially Abu Şabā Tractatus de scientia ecclesiastica, Abu 'l Bircat A light 30 in the darkness and an exposition of the offices (xivth cent.) and Gabriel V Rituale sacramentorum (1411). To these may be added the history of Abu Daḥn published in a latin version Historia Jacobitarum seu Coptorum .. opera Josephi Abudacni Oxon. 1675, and in an english translation from the latin, E. S[adleir] The 35 History of the Cophts commonly called Jacobites Lond. 1693.

Abu 'l Bircat's work is contained in Vat. Arab. dcxxiii (A 19), Upsala Orient. 486 (Tornberg Codd. arab. pers. et lurc. bibl. reg. univ. Upsaliens. Upsala 1849, P. 306): Gabriel's in Paris Anc. fonds 42 (?).

4. Of modern writers see Vansleb Histoire de l'église d'Alexandrie Paris 1677 (esp. iii. 1): Renaudot Lit. or. coll. i, pp. lxxvi sqq., 152-302: Lebrun Explication iv, pp. 469-518:

Neale History of the holy eastern church: introd. p. 323 sq., The 3 patriarchate of Alexandria Lond. 1847: A. J. Butler The ancient

Coptic churches of Egypt Oxford 1884 (esp. vol. ii): Evetts and Butler The churches and monasteries of Egypt Oxford 1895.


The books necessary for the celebration of the liturgy are (a) the Ķeddāsc, 10 containing the complete text of the liturgy: (B) the Sherata geçãwé (ordo synopseos), the Lectionary, the contents of which are indicated below.

There is an Abyssinian Uniat for whose use the Roman edition below seems to be intended.

i. Printed texts. 15 1. The Preanaphoral.

C. A. Swainson The Greek liturgies . . with an appendix containing the Coptic ordinary Canon of the Mass . . edited and translated by Dr. C. Bezold Cambridge 1884, pp. 349-95.

The singularly described document in the appendix is in fact the Ethiopic 20 preanaphoral, printed from Brit. Mus. Or. 545, with variants in the margin

from Or. 546, and an inadequate english translation. The folio, following f. 43, noted on p. 392 as wanting, is bound up as f. 52 in the ms. Dr. Swainson is mistaken, p. xliv, in saying that the mss. above do not contain the anaphora : see below.

25 2. Ordo communis with the Anaphora of the APOSTLES.

[Tastā Sion] Testamentum novum . . Missale cum benedictione incensi cerae &c. .. quae omnia Fr. Petrus Ethyops auxilio piorum sedente Paulo III pont, max. et Claudio illius regni imperatore

imprimis curavit (Romae) anno sal. mdxlviii, ff. 158–67. 30 The text has been so far latinized that the Filioque has been inserted in the

creed. Reprinted in Bullarium patronatus Portugalliae regum in ecclesiis Africae &c. append. t. iii, Olispone 1879, pp. 201-20.

Translations : Latin in [Tasfā Sion] Modus baptizandi ... item Missa qua communiter utuntur quae etiam Canon universalis appellatur nunc primum ex 35 lingua chaldaea sive aethiopica in latinam conversae Romae apud Antonium

Bladum mdxlix mense aprilis : reprinted, Louvain 1550. In the prefixed letter

to Paul III the translation is attributed to Petrus Paulus Gualterus of Arezzo. It is made presumably from the text above, but it is further latinized by the mutilation of the invocation, in addition to the insertion of the Filioque in the creed. Some notes of little value are appended. This version is reproduced in G. Witzel Exercitamenta syncerae pietatis Mogunt. 1555 : in the Biblio- 5 thecae patrum Paris 1575 t. iv, 1589 t. vi, 1654 t. vi, Colon. 1622 t. xv, Lugdun. 1677 t. xxvii : in Fabricius Cod. apocr. N. T. pars iii, Hamb. 1719, pp. 211-252, liturgia S. Matthaei qua aethiopes utuntur : in Migne P. L. cxxxviii. 907-28. G. Cassander Liturgica (Opera Paris 1616, p. 27) gives an abstract of this version. An emended latin version of the same text is given in Renaudot i, pp. 472-95, and 10 reprinted in Bullarium patronatus Portugalliae &c. u. s. pp. 239-57. English from Ren.'s latin in Brett, pp. 81-90, and from ed. 1548 and Brit. Mus. Add. 16202 in Rodwell Ethiopic liturgies and hymns i, Lond. 1864, pp. 1-26. The anaphora used at funerals given by Rodwell, pp. 48 sq., is only a form of the Apostles. 3. Other Anaphoras.

15 The following have been published:

(1) OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST (We give thanks unto thee, holy God, the end of our souls). Testamentum novum &c. Romae 1548, ff. 168 sq.: Ludolfus ad suam hist. aethiop. Commentarius Francof. ad M. 1691, pp. 341-345: Bullarium patr. Portug. 20 pp. 221-4.

Translations: Latin in Ludolfus u.s.: English in Rodwell u. s. pp. 27-31 (from ed. 1548 and Ludolfus).

(2) Our Lady Mary which father Cyriac pope of the city of Behnsa composed (My heart is inditing of a good matter). 23 Testamentum novum &c. ff. 170 sq.: Bullarium pp. 225-33.

English in Rodwell u. s. pp 31-40, from the above text and Brit. Mus. Add. 16202.

(3) S. DIOSCORUS (Before the world and for ever is God in his kingdom). Vansleb in Ludolfus Lexicon aethiopicum Lond. 30 1661, appendix (from Bodl. Poc. 6): hence in Bullar. pp. 260-2.

Latin version by Vansleb u. s., reprinted in Lebrun iv, pp. 564-79 and Bullar. pp. 261-3. English (part) in Rodwell u. s. p. 46 sq. from Brit. Mus. Add. 16202.

(4) S. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM (Behold we declare the essence of the Father who was before the creation of the world). Dillmann 35 Chrestomathia aethiopica Lips. 1866, pp. 51-6 (from Bodl. Poc. 6).

ii. Manuscripts. (1) Containing the ordo communis with anaphoras: seventeenth century, Brit. Mus. Or. 545, Paris Eth. 69, Berlin Dies A d. 11: eighteenth century, Brit. Mus.

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