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de Siriaco ou Suriano de verbo ad verbum em lingoa Latına) Coimbra 1606. Reproduced in La messe des anciens chrestiens dicts de S. Thomas Bruxelles 1609 (also Antwerp in the same year): the Bibliotheca patrum, Paris 1654 t. vi, Colon. 1618 t. xv, Lugdun. 1677 t. xxvii: J. F. Raulin Historia ecclesiae Malabaricae cum Diamperitana synodo.. accedunt cum liturgia Malabarica, tum &c. 5 Romae 1745, pp. 293-333: Lebrun Explication vi. 468 512. In English from the latin in Neale The liturgies of SS. Mark &c. Lond. 1859, 1869 &c.

3. An ancient Anaphora.

Dr. Bickell published in Zeitschr. d. deutschen morgenländ. Gesellschaft xxvii (1873) pp. 608-613 the text of a fragment in 10 Brit. Mus. Add. 14669, ff. 20 sq., containing an anaphora of the Persian rite, of which his Latin reproduction is given below in Appendix L. Its title is unknown, but its structure indicates its Persian affinities, the Intercession intervening between the Institution and the Invocation.

See below, p. 511 note. Dr. Wright in A short history of Syriac literature Lond. 1894, p. 28 calls this anaphora 'Diodore of Tarsus,' on what ground does not appear: but cp. iii. 1 below.


ii. Manuscripts.

(1) Liturgies. Nestorian: Vatican Syr. xlii (A.D. 1603), ccciii (1608), Brit. 20 Mus. Rich. 7181 (c. xvi), Paris Suppl. 31 (xvii), 39 (1697), 32 (written by Renaudot), 70 (xviii), 81 (1724). Chaldaean: Vat. Syr. xliv (1691), xliii (1701), ccxc (1751), ccxci (1766), Bodl. Ouseley 267 (xviii: with lat. vers., Paris Anc. fonds 67 (xvii), Suppl. 12 (xvii), 18 (1698), 24 (written by Renaudot), 68 (1699), 94 (1711), 49 (xviii). (2) Diptychs. The diptychs given below, 25 pp. 275-281, have been compiled by Kasha Oshana of Urmi from two mss., of which the one (a) was written by the rabban Yonan, who died a few years ago, from two mss., one long, the other short, which he combined without distinguishing the elements contributed by each: this composite ms. is the basis of the list below: the other (B), which is now at the end of the 30 Hudhra of the village of Guktapa near Urmi, was written about 200 years ago by mar Yuhanan of Mawana near the Perso-Turkish frontier. The additions taken from 8 are distinguished below by square brackets. From the names of the metropolitans it is clear that a belongs to the province Mosul, which was formerly part of that of Arbela: the names up to Titus, p. 277. 11, 35 belong to Arbela, and the list is then continued in the line of Mosul. From the names and the mention of Çubha (i.e. Nisibis), p. 278. 5, it appears that B belongs to the province of Nisibis. The notitiae of the Nestorian bishops are not complete enough to enable us to identify the cities to which the lists belong, but perhaps a is of Ardashir and B of Mardin. (3) Lectionaries: Brit. Mus. Add. 14492 (c. ix), 14491 (ix or x), 14705, 17923 (xi), 14688 (xii or xiii), Egerton 681 (xiii), Rich. 7168, 7173-6.


iii. History, &c.

1. Three other anaphoras are mentioned, but are now unknown.

(1) BARÇAUMA (fl. 480): mentioned in the Catalogue of 5 'Abhdishu (Assemani B. O. iii [1] p. 66).

(2) NARSAI (fl. 490): mentioned also by 'Abhdishu (ib. p. 65). (3) DIODORE OF TARSUS. An anaphora under this title is proscribed by de Menezes' synod of Diamper along with those of Nestorius and Theodore (act. v decr. 2, ap. Raulin Historia 10 p. 153), and Abraham Ecchellensis (Catal. Hebedjesu Romae 1655, p. 135) mentions it. Renaudot (Lit. or. coll. ii, p. 569) questions its existence, supposing that the synod of Diamper confused the names of Theodore and Diodore: but the decree mentions both and the doubt seems gratuitous.


Comp. i. 3 above. On the anaphora of Theodore see Leontius of Byzantium C. A. D. 531) c. Eutych, et Nestorium iii. 19 (Migne P. G. lxxxvi. 1368 c).

2. The history of the rite must otherwise be sought in the commentators, of whom the works of the following are extant. Ishu'yabh of Arzon († 595) Questions on the mysteries, found in 20 part in Vat. Syr. cl (5) (Assemani Vat. catal. or. iii p. 280). George of Arbela (fl. 960) Exposition of all the ecclesiastical offices is abstracted in B. O. iii (1) pp. 518-40 (tr. iv. is on the liturgy); his Questions on the ministry of the altar is extant in Vat. Syr. cl (1). Yabhallaha II († 1222) Questions on betrothals and marriages and 25 on the sacred liturgy, ib. (3). 'Abhdishu of Nisibis (1318) The Pearl is printed with a Latin translation in Mai Scriptt. vet. nov. coll. x (2) Romae 1838, pp. 317 sqq., and is given in English in Badger The Nestorians and their rituals ii, Lond. 1852, pp. 380-422: iv. 5 sq. is on the Eucharist. Timothy II (fl. 1318) On the seven 30 causes of the mysteries of the church is abstracted in B. O. iii (1) pp. 572-80. The Book of the Fathers or The heavenly intelligences, included in the Nestorian law-book Ashitha Sunhadus, is attributed to Simeon bar Sabba'e († c. 340) but is certainly much later (Wright Syriac Literature p. 30, Maclean and Browne The 35 Catholicos of the East and his people Lond. 1892, p. 183): it is unpublished.

Narsai (fl 490) Exposition of the mysteries (B. O. iii [1] p. 65), Hannana of Hedhaiyabh (+607) Exposition of the mysteries (ib. 83), and Ishu'barnon (†826)

On the division of the offices (ib. 166) are mentioned in the Catalogue of 'Abhdishu, but are no longer extant, unless the anonymous tract mentioned in B. O. ii p. 489 n. xi be the work of Ishu'barnon. Cp.Wright A short history of Syriac literature Lond. 1894, PP. 59, 127, 217.

3. Of modern writers Assemani Biblioth. orient. iii (1) and (2) 5 gives all sorts of information on Nestorians, Chaldaeans and Malabarese: Renaudot Lit. or. coll. ii pp. 561-642 has a dissertation and notes on the liturgies: Neale History of the holy eastern church: introd. pp. 319-323 discusses the originality of the Persian rite as against Palmer Origines liturgicae i, 10 pp. 194-196 (4th ed.): Bickell Conspectus rei syrorum literariae pp. 61-5 discusses some points of the liturgy. On the Nestorians see Etheridge Syrian churches pp. 54-134, Badger The Nestorians and their rituals Lond. 1852, Yule Cathay and the way thither, Hakluyt Soc. 36, 37, Lond. 1866, Legge The 15 Nestorian monument of Hsi-an Fû Lond. 1888, Maclean and Browne The Catholicos of the East and his people Lond. 1892. On the Chaldaeans, Lebrun Explication vi, pp. 369-571, Badger u. s., Bickell der katholische Orient Münster 1874, 1-6 (no. 6 has notes on the liturgy comparing the Uniat and the Nestorian 20 forms in detail). On the Malabarese see Raulin Historia ecclesiae Malabaricae Romae 1745, Binterim Denkwürdigkeiten iv (2) Mainz 1827, pp. 240 sqq., Etheridge u. s. pp. 150-171, Howard The Christians of S. Thomas and their liturgies Oxford 1864, Rae The Syrian church in India Edinb. 1892.



The liturgies of S. CHRYSOSTOM, of S. BASIL and of S. GREGORY DIALOGCS or the Presanctified exist and are in use in several languages. In many cases there is a Uniat rite alongside of the Orthodox.



The languages are the following: (1) Greek, in use among the greek-speaking populations of the Levant, whether Orthodox or Uniat, and in the western Uniats, the Greek in Italy and the Albanian in Sicily: (2) Syriac, no longer in use but formerly the language of the Syrian Melkites or Orthodox: (3) Arabic, the language of the arabic-speaking Orthodox, at least in Palestine, and of the 35 Uniat drawn from the Orthodox of Syria, now called 'Melkites' or 'Greek


catholics': (4) Georgian, the language of Georgia, the exarchate of Tiflis, now in some degree in process of displacement by Slavonic: (5) Old Slavonic, the ecclesiastical language of Russia and of the Slavonic populations of the Balkan peninsula and Austria-Hungary, both Orthodox and Uniat: (6) Roumanian, 5 since the middle of the seventeenth century, when it displaced Old Slavonic, the language of the church of Roumania and of the Roumanians of Hungary, Orthodox and Uniat: (7) Esthonian, Lettish and German, in use in the Baltic provinces of Russia: (8) Finnish and Tartar dialects of E. Russia and N. Asia, Eskimo and Indian dialects of N. E. Asia, the Aleutian islands and Alaska, as 10 well as Japanese and Chinese, in use in the missions of the Russian church: (9) English, in use among Austrian colonists in N. America, formerly Uniat, now Orthodox under the bishop of Alaska and the Aleutian islands resident in San Francisco.

Of the liturgical books it is sufficient to mention (1) the Tumióν, containing 15 the rules for determining the service to be said on a given day, and dealing with questions of occurrence and concurrence, &c., and indicating most of the variables; first published in Tunikòv kaì tà ảпóррητа Venice 1545, and again Τυπικὸν σὺν Θεῷ ἁγίῳ περιέχον πᾶσαν τὴν διάταξιν τῆς ἐκκλησιαστικῆς ἀκολουθίας τοῦ χρόνου ὅλου Venice 1685, and much simplified in Τυπικὸν κατὰ τὴν τάξιν τῆς 2ο τοῦ Χριστοῦ μεγάλης ἐκκλησίας Constantinople 1888. Selections from the Typikon are given under the several months and days in the Mŋvaîa, the 'Av✪oλóylor and the books de tempore in (7) below. (2) The Eixoλóyov contains, besides the offices for the rest of the sacraments and the 'occasional' and pontifical offices, the text and rubrics of the fixed elements of the liturgy, the 25 diakonika being generally more or less abbreviated. (3) The Λειτουργικόν or

Ai beîai Xeitovрyía contains the text and rubrics of the liturgies, apart from the other matter contained, in the Euchologion, with some of the less frequently varying of the variable formulae appended. (4) The Ἱεροδιακονικόν contains the diakonika: e.g. 'Iepodiakovikòv véov Venice 1694, 'Iepodiakovikùv èv ộ mepiéxetai 30 ἅπασα ἡ τῆς ἱεροδιακονικῆς τάξεως πρᾶξις Venice 1768, &c. (5) The fixed hymns and responses are contained in the Συλλειτουργικών : e. g. ̓Ακολουθία τοῦ ἀναγνώστου ἤγουν τὰ συλλειτουργικά Venice 1549, 1641, and νεωστὶ διορθοθεῖσα (sic) 1644. (6) The ̓Αναγνωστικόν, the ̓Απόστολος or Πραξαπόστολος and the Εὐαγγέλιον contain the lections, the Evayyeλiorápiov the table of N. T. lections. (7) The variable 35 hymns are found, for Sundays in the 'Okrúŋxos (Venice 1525 &c.), for Lent and the three preceding weeks in the Tpiwotov (Venice 1522 &c.), for Eastertide in the ПEvτηKоoтápiov (Venice 1544 &c.), and for the immovable feasts in the Mŋvaîa (Venice 1548 &c.): the festal hymns are repeated in the 'Avtoλóyiov (Venice 1621 &c.), and again in part (the antiphons of the enarxis and the hymns 40 of the Little Entrance, in the poλóyov (Venice 1509 &c.). It will be unnecessary further to refer to any of these books except those contained in (2), (3) and (6). See Leo Allatius de libris ecclesiasticis Graecorum Paris 1645, reprinted in J. A. Fabricius Bibliotheca graeca v, Hamb. 1712: Cave Scriptorum eccles. hist. lit. ii, Lond. 1698, diss. 2, pp. 30-60: Neale History of the holy eastern church: 45 introd. Lond. 1850, pp. 819 sqq.: Daniel Cod. lit. iv, Lips. 1853, pp. 314 sqq.:

Pitra Hymnographie de l'église grecque Rome 1867, pp. 62-64: Legrande Bibliographie hellénique au quinzième et seizième siècle Paris 1885, Bibliogr, hellén, au dix-septième siècle Paris 1894-5.

In speaking of a great living rite like the Byzantine it is impossible, as it is unnecessary, to do more than indicate certain 5 groups whether of printed texts or of manuscripts.

i. Greek printed texts.

Αἱ θεῖαι λειτουργίαι τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰωάννου τοῦ χρυσοστόμου, Βασιλείου τοῦ μεγάλου καὶ ἡ τῶν προηγιασμένων Γερμάνου ἀρχιεπισκόπου Κωνσταντινουπόλεως ἱστορία ἐκκλησιαστικὴ καὶ μυστικὴ θεωρία. Ἐν Ῥώμῃ χιλιοστῷ φκςʹ (1526) το μηνὸς ὀκτοβρίου· δεξιώτητι Δημητρίου Δουκᾶ τοῦ κρητός.

This is the editio princeps of these liturgies, published with the licence of Clement VII and, according to the colophon, edited with the co-operation of the archbishops of Cyprus and of Rhodes. Beyond this the source of its text is unknown. The text is reprinted in Swainson, pp. 101-87 (bottom). S. Chrys. 15 was published separately in Λειτουργία τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰωάννου τοῦ χρυσοστόμου κατὰ τὴν τοῦ Δημητρίου Δούκας (sic) τοῦ κρητὸς ἔκδοσιν Venice 1644.

Η θεία λειτουργία τοῦ ἁγίου Ιωάννου τοῦ χρυσοστόμου: divina missa sancti Joannis Chrysostomi Venetiis per Joan. Antonium et fratres de Sabio 1528, and apud Julianos 1687 (greek and latin).

The text is closely akin to, but not identical with, that of the edition of Ducas.

Λειτουργίαι τῶν ἁγίων πατέρων ̓Ιακώβου τοῦ ἀποστόλου καὶ ἀδελφοθέου, Βασιλείου τοῦ μεγάλου, Ἰωάννου τοῦ χρυσοστόμου Parisiis 1560.


The source of the texts is not indicated except in so far that in the letter to 25 the cardinal of Lorraine prefixed to the corresponding latin collection, Paris 1560, Antwerp 1560, 1562 (see above, p. xlviii), the editor Jo. a S. Andrea describes the documents there contained as drawn e mediis Graeciae bibliothecis (f. 2 v). The latin version of S. Basil is that of an ancient ms. of Johannisberg; of S. Chrysostom, that of Leo Thuscus (see below pp. lxxxiv 10, lxxxv 30).


J. Goar EYXOAOTION sive rituale graecorum.. cum selectis bibliothecae Regiae, Barberinae, Cryptae Ferratae, Sancti Marci Florentini, Tillianae, Allatianae, Coresianae, et aliis probatis mm. ss. et editis exemplaribus collatum. Interpretatione latina.. illustratum... Lutetiae Parisiorum mdcxlvii. Ed. secunda Venetiis mdccxxx. 35

This is the most considerable collection of materials for the history of the text that has been made, and it has never been adequately used. Daniel Cod. lit. iv pp. 327 sqq. makes some use of it and embodies some of its collations for S. Chrysostom. Its most important texts are the Barberini, on which see below and the following:


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