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Ibid. pp. 153-156 (ed. 2) Exemplar aliud liturgiae Basilianae juxta M. S. Isidori Pyromali Smyrnaei monasterii S. Joannis in insula Patmo diaconi. An undated text of S. Basil, of an ancient type intermediate between the Barberini and the mass of later 5 texts.

The ms., brought to Europe by Isidore Pyromalus, a friend of Goar's, was recognized by the latter as closely related to the latin text given by De la Bigne (Morel is apparently meant, viz. in Liturgiae patrum Paris 1560: at least Morel's text is evidently identical with that referred to), the origin of which 10 he had been anxious to ascertain. This translation was, no doubt, in fact

derived either from J. Cochlaeus Speculum antiquae devotionis circa missam et omnem alium cultum Dei. . . ap. S. Victorem extra muros Moguntiae 1549 or from G. Witzel Exercitamenta syncerae pietatis multo saluberrima inter quae lector habes liturgiam seu missam S. Basilii mag. recognitam Mogunt. 15 1555 and Cochlaeus and Witzel derived it independently from a vetustus codex latinae translationis belonging to the monastery of S. John in the Rheingau, i. e. Johannisberg on the Rhine below Mainz: see Speculum p. 117 and Exercitamenta epistola nuncup. and praefatio. Both the mss. are lost for the present at least, Goar's greek is not in the Bibliothèque Nationale, and 20 the Johannisberg ms. has probably perished, the library having been burnt at the beginning of the present century. The texts are important as containing the diakonika and an order in some ways different from that of later texts. It may be noticed that the prayer of the Cherubic Hymn Oudeìs äĝios is wanting, and the text of the prayer of Elevation Пpóσxes Kúpte is intermediate between 25 that of the Barberini ms. (p. 341 below: identical with the text in [Amphilochius] Vita S. Basilii 6 in SS. patrum Amphilochii . . . opera omnia ed. Combefis, Paris. 1644, p. 176 B) and that of S. Chrysostom in Grottaferrat. I ẞ vii of the ninth or tenth century.

C. A. Swainson The Greek Liturgies chiefly from original 30 sources Cambridge 1884, pp. 76–187.

This gives, pp. 76–98, the three liturgies from the Barberini ms. with variants in S. Chrysostom from Vat. Graec. 1970 (codex Rossanensis), and again pp. 101144, 151-187 from Burdett-Coutts iii. 42 (eleventh cent.) and from the editio princeps with variants from other edd. and some mss. The comparison of 35 eleventh and sixteenth century texts is inconveniently arranged and misleading. The choice of materials is arbitrary and inadequate, and it is assumed that conclusions can be drawn from the mere length of a text without regard to its intended scope, whereas in fact a modern altar-book is not materially longer than the earliest known text. Hence the comparison of an eleventh century 40 altar-book with a more or less complete sixteenth century text leads to no result, and the remarks on p. 148 are entirely illusive. The inadequacy of materials may be gathered from p. 174 where the editor remarks that he has met with no ms. of the Presanctified later than the Barberini and the Rossano codices,

whereas such mss. are quite common; and on p. 74 the mss. of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries are said to be 'chiefly fragmentary,' which is not the case unless it be meant that they are altar-books and therefore do not contain the diakonika. The momentcus additions between the eleventh and the sixteenth centuries' referred to on p. xxxvi affect only the Prothesis: their 5 extent and their momentousness can be judged of from Appendix Q below.

The service-books of the Orthodox use, until the present century, seem to have been printed exclusively at Venice where the Euchologion was published in 1526, 1545, 1558 &c., and there has been a series of issues by various editors ever 10 since. In the present century editions have been printed at Constantinople, e.g. Eixoλóytov тò péya 1803, and at Athens, e.g. Ai Oéîaɩ Neɩrovpyía 1835, the latter representing the use of the church of Greece which has characteristics of its own. Of the service-books of the Uniats, the Basilian use of Italy is repre- 15 sented by Aἱ θεῖαι λειτουργίαι . . . αἷς . . . ἔθος ἱερουργεῖν τοῖς ἰταλογραικοῖς τοῦ ἁγίου Βασιλείου μοναχοῖς κατὰ τὴν τάξιν τοῦ τυπικοῦ ᾗ χρῆται ἡ σεβασμία μονὴ ἡ Κρύπτης Φερράτης καλουμένη Rome 16or and Λειτουργικὸν σὺν Θεῷ ἁγίῳ κατὰ τὴν τάξιν τοῦ τυπικοῦ τῆς πανσέπτου μονῆς τῆς Κρυπτοφέρρης καὶ μὴν καὶ ἔθος τῶν ἰταλογραικῶν μοναζόντων τοῦ μεγάλου πατρὸς ἡμῶν Βασιλείου 20 Rome 1683, the latter arranged as a Roman missal; while the editions of Eixoλóyov тò péya, Rome 1754 and 1873, represent the use of the Greek Uniat in general.


See E. Legrande Bibliographie hellénique au xv et xvi siecle Paris 1885, Bibliog. hellén, au dix-septième siècle Paris 1894-5. From one or more of the editions of 25 the service-books are derived several western literary editions: e.g. Daniel Codex lit. iv, pp. 327-450 (ed. not specified), Neale Tetralogia liturgica (S. Chrys. from edd. Venice 1840 and 1842), J. N. W. B. Robertson Ai Deîai Xeitovpyía Lond. 1894 (chiefly from edd. Venice 1851, 1888, Constantinople 1858).

Translations. (1) S. CHRYSOSTOM was translated into Latin for Rainaldus de 30 Monte Catano by Leo Thuscus in about 1180 from a text of the end of the eleventh or the beginning of the twelfth century, as is indicated by the names of Nicolas patriarch of Constantinople (Nicolas III 1084-1111) and of Alexios the emperor (Komnenos 1080-1118) commemorated in the great intercession (the other patriarchs cannot be identified). This version was published by 35 Beatus Rhenanus Missa d. Joannis Chrysostomi secundum veterem usum ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae Colmar 1540 (Horawitz and Hartfelder Briefwechsel d. B. Rhenanus Leipz. 1886, pp. 617, 466, 471, 474) and reprinted in Liturgiae sive missae ss. patrum Parisiis 1560, Antwerpiae 1560, 1562, and fragments of it in Swainson, pp. 145-7. Another latin version was made in about 1510 by 40 Erasmus for Fisher of Rochester (Fisher de verit. corporis et sanguinis Christi in

euchar. Colon. 1527, f. 113) from two mss., one of them said to be of the twelfth cent. (Gasquet and Bishop Edward VI and the Book of common prayer Lond. 1890, p. 187 note) and published in Opera S. Chrys. t. v, ed. Chevallon, Paris 1536, and separately in D. Joannis Chrysostomi missa graecolatina D. Erasmo Roterodamo 5 interprete Paris 1537, and at Colmar 1540; again in Opera S. Chrys. Basil. 1547 and t. iv Paris 1624; and again in Τῆς θείας λειτουργίας τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰωάννου τοῦ Xpνσоστóμov dúo keiμeva Venice 1644 (being the text and version of 1528, and a text with Erasmus' version, described in the preface as reprinted from an edition by Morel, 1570) and Λειτουργίας τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰωάννου τοῦ χρυσοστόμου 10 ἑτέρα ἔκδοσις τελεῖσθαι εἰωθυίας ἕν τισι τῶν μοναστηρίων Venice 1644 (being apparently a reprint of the second part of the former). Another version was published at Worms in 1541 from a Trier ms. by Ambr. Pelargus (who remarks in his preface on the great differences between the Trier text, that used by Erasmus, and a roll in the cathedral church of Worms: this last is also men15 tioned in a letter of Konrad Harzbach to B. Rhenanus, Horawitz p. 471), and another from the ed. of 1526 at Prague in 1544, and another from the same ed. by Gentianus Hervetus, Venice 1548, Antwerp 1562, and reprinted in the Bibliotheca patrum Paris 1624 t. ii, 1644 and 1654 t. xii. Montfaucon Opera S. Chrys.

t. xii, Paris 1735, gives a version from the text of Savile Opera S. Chrys. t. vi, 20 Etonae 1612 (described as derived from 'ed. Morellii Paris. 1570,' i. e. apparently AET. T. ȧy, Ħaтépov Paris. 1560). See Cave Scriptt. eccles. i p. 305, Fabricius Biblioth. graeca vii p. 651 sq., xiii p. 824, Burbidge Liturgies and offices of the church Lond. 1885, pp. 41 sq., Legrande Bibliographie hellénique au dix-septième siècle i p. 459 sqq.: Gasquet and Bishop u. s. A German translation was published 25 by G. Witzel in 1540 (Horawitz and Hartfelder u. s. pp. 466, 469), and a modern version by Rajewsky in Euchologion d. orthodox-katholischen Kirche Wien 1861-2. English in Brett Collection pp. 42-56 (anaphora: from Goar): Covel Account of the present Greek church Cambr. 1722, pp. 15-28 (from Evxoλóyıov Venice 1673): King Rites and ceremonies of the Greek church in Russia Lond. 1772, pp. 137-84 30 (from the Slavonic): Neale History: introd. pp. 341-726 (from edd. Venice 1839, 1842) in The divine liturgy of our father among the saints John Chrysostom Lond. 1866: Robertson Ai féîai Xerovpyía: the divine liturgies Lond. 1894 (see above). (2) On the old Latin version of S. BASIL See above p. lxxxiv. A version of his own was also published by G. Witzel in 1546 (according to Gasquet and 35 Bishop u. s.): another from the edition of 1526 by Gentianus Hervetus, Venice

1548, reprinted in the Biblioth. patrum Paris 1624 t. ii, 1644 and 1654 t. xii; and another from a ms. in Uffenbach's library, consisting of leaves promiscuously arranged, in J. H. Maius Bibliotheca Uffenbachiana Halae 1720, p. 498, reprinted in Migne P. G. cvi. 1291 sqq. (certainly not of the ninth century as 40 there stated). German in Rajewsky u. s. English in Brett pp. 57-70 (anaphora

only, from Goar), and Neale and Robertson as above. (3) The PRESANCTIFIED was translated, from the edition of 1526 and an Euchologion, by Gilbert Genebrard, and published in the Biblioth, patr. Colon. 1622 t. xv, Paris 1624 t. ii, 1644 and 1654 t. xii, Lugdun. 1677 t. xxvii. German and English in 45 Rajewsky, Neale and Robertson as above.

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The Lectionary. (1) The ̓Αναγνώσεις Or ἀναγνώσματα, the Old Testament lections of the divine office, were printed separately with the proper προκείμενα in Βιβλίον λεγόμενον ̓Αναγνωστικὸν περιέχον πάντα τὰ ἀναγνώσματα τὰ ἐν τοῖς ἑσπερινοῖς τοῦ ὅλου ἐνιαυτοῦ τά τε εὑρισκόμενα ἐν τοῖς βιβλίοις τῶν δώδεκα μηνῶν καὶ τὰ ἐν τῷ τριωδίῳ καὶ ἐν τῷ πεντηκοσταρίῳ 5 Venice 1595-6. This has not apparently been often reprinted, if at all. The lections do not belong to the liturgy except in Lent, when the two lections of the ferial onepivós, from Genesis and Proverbs respectively, become on wednesdays and fridays the lections of the Presanctified. They are contained in the 10 Τριώδιον. (2) The ̓Απόστολος or Πραξαπόστολος, containing the Apostles (S. Paul) and the lections from the Acts substituted for the Apostles in Eastertide, was printed at Venice in 1550 and frequently since. In some editions at least the proper #рoкeiμeva and alleluias are added. (3) The Octov κai iepòv Evayyédiov, con- 15 taining the Gospels for the year, was published at Venice in 1539 and often since. (4) The Evayyeλioтápiov or table of sunday Gospels for the year was published in Εὐαγγελιστάριον περιέχον τὴν τῶν εὐαγγελιστῶν διαδοχὴν πόθεν ἄρχονται καὶ ποῦ καταλήγουσιν Venice 1614, 1624, and is appended to modern editions of the Evayyéλov 20 e. g. Venice 1872. The later editions include the Apostles in the table.

The table of lections is given in Smith and Cheetham Dict. of christian antiquities s. v. Lectionary, pp. 955-9, and in Scrivener Introduction to the textual criticism of the New Testament, ed. 4, i pp. 80-89. On the structure of the 25 lectionary see E. Ranke's excellent exposition in Herzog-Plitt Real-Encyclopädie xi, s. v. Perikopen, pp. 463-8. See also Burgon The last twelve verses of S. Mark Oxford 1871, pp. 191 sqq., and Scrivener op. cit. pp. 74-7, 327 sq. (inaccurate in detail). On the Evayyeλioтápiov see further in the Glossary sub voce.

ii. The other languages of the rite.

Of the Melkite Syriac only the Gospel lectionary has been published in Bibliothecae syriacae a Paulo de Lagarde collectae quae ad philologiam sacram pertinent Gottingae 1892, pp. 257-402 ('the Jerusalem Syriac').


See Tischendorf-Gregory Nov. test. graece, ed. 8, Leipz. 1894, pp. 827 sq.: 35 E. Ranke in Herzog-Plitt Real-Encyclopädie xi, s. v. Perikopen, pp. 470 sq. The Gospels are tabulated from Bodl. Dawk. 5 in Payne-Smith Catal. codd. syr. bibl. Bodl. cc. 114-29.

The Arabic for the use of the Orthodox in Palestine is printed

The book of the) کتاب خدمة الاسرار المقدسة in At deiat Aeuroupyia

service of the holy mysteries) Jerusalem, at the Patriarchal press, 1860 (arabic only). The Uniat Melkite use is found in Ai béîat 5 decroupyia (The book of liturgies) (Rome 1839?), Vienna 1862 (parallel greek and arabic).


The Gospel lectionary is tabulated in Mai Scriptt. vet. nov. coll. iv (2) Romae 1831, pp. 34 60 from Vat. Arab. xvi (twelfth cent.).

In Slavonic the liturgies of S. Basil and S. Chrysostom 10 were published for Servia, with the lections at Venice in 1519, 1554, and in three editions about 1570, and without lections at Venice in 1527 (Dobrowsky Institutiones linguae slavicae Vindob. 1822, p. xl; P. J. Šafařík Gesch. d. südslawischen Literatur, ed. Jireček, Prag 1865, t. iii pp. 284 sq.), and the liturgies for 15 Russia at Venice in 1574 (Zaccaria Biblioth. ritualis i, Romae 1776, p. 19) and at Moscow in 1602 (Dobrowsky op. cit. p. xlix).

The Georgian books were printed before 1798 (F. C. Alter Ueber georgianische Litteratur Wien 1798, p. 122).

In German the liturgies are published for the use of the 20 Russian colony at Alexandroff ka near Potsdam in Maltzew die göttlichen Liturgieen unserer heiligen Väter Johannes Chrysostomos, Basilios d. grossen u. Gregorios Dialogos deutsch u. slawisch unter Berücksichtigung d. griechischen Urtexte Berlin 1890.

The liturgies have been printed in Japanese (2nd. ed. 1895) 25 and in Chinese (1894), and in several Finnish and Tartar dialects.

§ In Roumania till 1643 Old Slavonic was the ecclesiastical language, and till sometime in the same century Servian was that of commerce and law. Since that date Roumanian has been substituted, but the cyrillic alphabet was retained till 1828 when it was modified: in about 1847 it was finally abandoned and the 30 roman letters adopted. See Gröber Grundriss d. romanisch. Philologie i, Strassb. 1886, p. 437, Morfill Slavonic literature Lond. 1883, p. 24. § Innocent archbishop of Kamchatka (1840-68), afterwards metropolitan of Moscow, translated or assisted in the translation of the liturgy into several dialects of N. E. Asia, the Aleutian islands and Alaska. See American church review July 1877.

iii. Manuscripts.

(1) ROME, Biblioth. Barberina. MS. iii. 55. Parchm., of the end of the eighth century, in uncial. Euchologion. The liturgies are abstracted in Goar Evxoλóytov pp. 83-85, 150-153, 173 (ed. 2),

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