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and printed at length in Bunsen Analecta antenic. iii. pp. 201-36, and from a new collation in Swainson pp. 76–98, and again from a new collation, with additions from early sources, below pp. 309-52. The ordinations are printed in Morinus de sacris ecclesiae Ordinationibus Antw. 1695.


According to a note on the fly-leaf, the volume was bequeathed to the convent of S. Marco at Florence by one Nicolas de Nicholis, having been left in Florence, according to Goar's prooemium, by a member of the Council of Florence in 1439. On palaeographical grounds it is assigned to the eighth or ninth century, and the date is probably more closely defined as between 788 and 797 by the com- 10 memorations on p. 333 below, where the Baoiλeis must be Constantine VI (779-97) and Mary (married in 788) or Theodota (married in 795), and the Basiliosa the dowager empress Irene. The lacuna of eight leaves in S. Basil is supplied below, pp. 327-36, from Grottaferrata г ẞ vii.

(2) The bulk of existing manuscripts are of the eleventh 15 to the seventeenth century, while texts of the tenth century are The diversities among manuscript texts, so frequently insisted upon, for the most part affect the completeness of the contents and only in a small degree the text of the liturgy: celebrant's altar books are commoner than more complete 20 documents.

Ninth or tenth century, Grottaferrat. I ẞ vii (1). Tenth century, Grottaferrat. rẞ x, xx (1). Eleventh century, Grottaferrat. T B ii, iv, xx (2): Paris Graec. 328 (1): Burdett-Coutts iii 42 (given in Swainson, Chrys. Bas.). Twelfth century, Rome, Bibl. Angelica C. 4. 15: Grottaferrat. Tß xxi: Milan F. 3 sup.: 25 Paris Graec. 330, 391, 392, 409: Bodl. Laud. 28, Auct. E. 5. 13: Burdett-Coutts i. 10 (variants in Swainson, Chrys. Bas.). Thirteenth century, Grottaferrat. FB xiv: Milan E. 20 sup.: Paris Graec. 112: Bodl. Cromw. 11. Fourteenth century, Vat. Ottobon. 288: Grottaferrat. Ã ß vii (2), xviii: Venice Append. graec. 447, 452: Paris Graec. 324, 328 (2), Suppl. graec. 469: Cairo Patriarch. 30 69: Jerusalem Patriarch. 520, . Saba 605, 607 (patriarchal diάragis). Fifteenth century, Milan P. 112 sup: Paris Graec. 326, 2509, (Goar's ms., pp. 78-83), Bibl. Mazarin Graec. 727: Munich Graec. 540: Patmos 641, 690, 703: Jerusalem S. Saba 56. Sixteenth century, Rome, Bibl. Corsiniana 41 £ 29, 41 E 31: Grottaferrat. r B ix, xxiv: Venice Nanian. 192, ii 147: Paris Graec. 393: 35 Bodl. Barocc. 42, 107: Munich. Graec. 409: Jerusalem S. Saba 48, 53, 250, 392, 401, 618, 621, 687, 692. Seventeenth century, Venice Nanian. 219, 221, ii. 160, xi. 28: Paris, Bibl. Mazarin Graec. 725: Jerusalem Patriarch. 74, 99, 334, 474, 481 (1), S. Saba 327, 384, 540, 571, 584, 585, 586. Of unassigned date, Rome, Vat. Vat. gr. 1213, Ottobon. graec. 344, 434, Bibl. Barberina iii. 12, 22, 35, 40 48, 64, 89, 105, 108, 112, 129, iv. 1, 10, 13, 17, 25, 40 (Goar's Barberin. secund.), 41, 70 (these are described simply as Euchologia, and probably they do not

ii. 159,

all contain the liturgies, while no doubt some of them belong to group (4) below): Milan F. 10 sup., E. 18 sup. 2: Jerusalem S. Saba 570. Goar's Euchologion patriarchale Grottaferrat. I B 1, twelfth cent does not contain the liturgies. Some other mss. are mentioned by Goar and by Swainson, but 5 they are difficult to identify from their descriptions.

(3) From the eleventh to the fifteenth century commonly, and for a century or two before and after this period occasionally, the liturgies were written on a roll, a strip of parchment several feet in length and from six to eight inches broad 10 attached to a wooden roller with ornamental finials, written over

on both sides, the text of the verso beginning from the roller in order that in use the parchment after being unrolled might be rolled up again. Such manuscripts are generally celebrant's books containing little beyond the prayers and short rubrics: 15 in some cases they have at least the cues of the diakonika, and deacon's rolls containing only the diakonika are not unknown. Each roll commonly contains a single liturgy, occasionally two or even the three.

Ninth or tenth century, Grottaferrat. I 8 xxix (fragments). Eleventh 20 century, Grottaferrat. г 8 xli (fragment): Bodl. Bodl. Add. E 12, E. D. Clarke 38 (ff. i, 230: fragments). Twelfth century, Brit. Mus. Add. 22749, 27563, 27564 Paris Graec. 409: Monte Cassino (fragment): Messina Graec. 176: Chalki Theol. School: Jerusalem S. Saba 2 (fragment). Thirteenth century, Brit. Mus. Add. 18070: Paris Graec. 409 a, Suppl. graec. 468: Patmos 707, 709, 25 710, 731. Fourteenth century, Patmos 714, 716 (prothesis and diakonika), 721, 727-30, 733; Jerusalem Patriarch. 517, 518, 520. Fifteenth century, Paris Graec. 408: Patmos 708, 711, 712, 718, 720, 722, 725, 732, 734. Sixteenth century, Patmos 719 (with prothesis), 723, 724, 726. Seventeenth century, Patmos 717. On these mss. generally, and for other examples, see Gardthausen griechische 30 Paläographie Leipz. 1879, pp. 58 sqq. Besides the liturgies, other parts of the

Euchologion, e.g. ordinations, occur in rolls.

This form of liturgical ms. is called κοντάκιον, κονδάκιον, κονδάκι. Hence KOVтÁKIOV &c. are used for a copy of the liturgy, whatever its form (Theod. Balsamon in can. 32 in Trullo p. 193 [Migne P. G. cxxxvii. 621 B], resp. ad Marc. 35 5 [ib. cxxxviii. 957 в]: Evxoλóyov in ordin. presb., e.g. Venice 1869, p. 165), and similarly in arabic kindāḥ (Bodl. Bodl. 402, f. 1: in syriac ķūndōķo is used generally of a roll, not apparently of a liturgical book in particular).

(4) An important group of manuscripts is that of the Basilian communities of Italy and Sicily. They no doubt in some cases 40 may preserve usages which have vanished from the eastern books; and besides this they have an interest of their own both

as representing a development more or less independent of the eastern tradition and as containing a western admixture due to the influence of the Latin rite. They do not appear to have been studied in detail.

There are several such manuscripts in the library of Grottaferrata, the 5 Basilian monastery in the Alban Hills of the twelfth century, г ẞ viii, xv: of the thirteenth, г ẞ xiii: of the fourteenth, rẞ iii (Goar's cod. B. Falascae), xii: of the sixteenth, г B xvii, xix, xxxiii: of the seventeenth, г B xxiii, xxxviii: of the eighteenth, г ẞ xxvi, xxviii; of the nineteenth г 6 xxxii. (See Rocchi Codices cryptenses Romae 1884). Messina Graec. 107 (xvth c.), 144 (xvi) 10 are Basilian euchologia, and probably the liturgies ib. 160 (xiv), 147 (xvi), 56 (xvii) are Basilian: and Vat. Basilian. graec, ix (=Vat. gr. 1970, Swainson's C), xvii, xviii, li, Milan C 7 sup. (xiith c.), Paris Graec. 323 (xvi) probably all belong to this group, as no doubt do many of the Barberini euchologia mentioned above: and Bodl. Auct. E. 5. 13 (xiith cent.) formerly belonged to the Basilian 15 monastery of S. Salvator at Messina. Texts of S. Chrys. and S. Bas., with latin versions by Leo Thuscus and his contemporary Nicolas of Otranto, are contained in a Karlsruhe ms., formerly belonging to the abbey of Ettenheim-Münster, described by F. J. Mone in Lateinische u. griechische Messen Frankfurt a. M. 1850, pp. 138 sqq. The texts appear to be Italian.


§ In connexion with this group of manuscripts may be mentioned the so-called LITURGY OF S. PETER, which is a compilation from the Byzantine and the Roman rites, being the Byzantine liturgy with a Roman mass and the canon substituted for the corresponding Byzantine paragraphs. It may be that it 25 is only a literary experiment; but the considerable variations of text in the several copies suggest rather that it represents a serious attempt to combine the two rites and that it was actually in use in the Greek communities in Italy. It was first published, from a manuscript in the library of card. Sirleto, itself derived 30 no doubt from the Vatican manuscript below, by Guil. Linden in Apologia pro liturgia Petri apostoli et commentarius in eandem cum missa apostolica Petri apostoli Antw. 1589 and Paris 1595, and was reprinted in Biblioth. patrum ii Paris 1624 and Fabricius Cod. apocr. Nov. Test. iii Hamb. 1719 (greek and latin).

It is contained in Grottaferrat. г B vii (ixth or xth cent.), Vatican Vat. graec. 1970 (xii), Paris Suppl. graec. 476 (xv), Graec. 322 (xvi). Swainson pp. 191203 prints it from the Vatican ms. with variants (inaccurately given) from the first Paris ms. Cp. Le Nourry Apparat. ad biblioth. patrum i, c. 34: Pitra Hymnographie de l'église grecque Rome 1867, pp. 72 sq.




(5) The Lectionary. The manuscripts of the 'Anóσтoλos and the Evayyor are tabulated in Tischendorf-Gregory Novum Testamentum graece iii, ed. 8, pp. 687-800 and in Scrivener Introduction i, ed. 4, pp. 328-76. Some of these manuscripts 5 also contain Old Testament lections, but the documents of the ̓Αναγνωστικόν have not apparently been collected.

Messina Graec. 102, 122, 131 of the twelfth century and 164 of the thirteenth are ̓Αναγνωστικά.

(6) Syriac and Arabic manuscripts.

Syriac. (1) Liturgies. Brit. Mus. Add. 14497 (c. xi or xii): Vat. Syr. xli (14th c.), ib. xl (16th c.: with arabic rubrics). (2) Lectionaries. Vat. Syr. cclxxviii (9th c.), cclxxix (before 1141), cclxxx (1505): Bodl. Dawk. 5, 9: Brit. Mus. Add. 14489 (A. D. 1023), 17218 (xi).

Arabic. (1) Liturgies. Vat. Arab. xlvii (greek-arabic, A.D. 1582): xlviii 15 (16th c., Uniat): Bodl. Bodl. 402 (S. Chrys.): Jerusalem S. Saba 327 (1640: greek arabic). (2) Lectionaries. Vat. Arab. xvi (12th c.), dexii (15th c.): Bodl. Dawk. 36, 39.

iv. History &c.

(1) In Appendices M and N are given outlines of the 20 liturgies of the dioceses of Asia and Pontus, which were absorbed into the patriarchate of Constantinople, gathered respectively from the canons of Laodicea and from the writers of the Pontic diocese.

Cp. Palmer Origines liturgicae Lond. 1845, pp. 45-72, 106-110, Probst Liturgie 25 d. vierten Jahrhunderts u. deren Reform Münster i. W. 1893, pp. 124-156.

(2) In Appendix O similar outlines of the Byzantine liturgy are collected from the writers of the fifth and sixth centuries, and in Appendix P from those of the seventh and particularly S. Maximus.


On the liturgy in the Constantinopolitan writings of S. Chrysostom and S. Gregory of Nazianzus see Probst Liturgie d. vierten Jahrh. pp. 202-26.

S. BASIL is first mentioned by name in Peter the Deacon (c. 513) de incarn. et gratia 8 (Migne P. L. lxii. 90 c) and Leontius of Byzantium (c. 531) C. Eutych. et Nestor. iii. 19 (Migne P. G. lxxxvi. 1368 c) and the 32nd canon in Trullo 35 Bruns Canones i, p 47), and it is implied in [Amphilochius] Vita S. Basilii 6 (ed. Combefis, Paris 1644, p. 176). S. CHRYSOSTOм is not alluded to by name before the Barberini ms., where three prayers are attributed to him, pp. 315. 319, 343 below. Swainson, p. xxxi, argues from the absence of a title, and the assignment of only these three prayers to S. Chrysostom, that the liturgy as a whole

was not attributed to him at the date of this ms. But the abrupt opening of the liturgy without even a rubric suggests that the omission of the title is accidental, and that an illuminated title, like that of S. Basil, was meant to be inserted and afterwards forgotten; while it is not unusual to attach the name of the reputed author of a liturgy to individual prayers contained in it (see e.g. 5 Swainson p. 156, and the rubric before the prayer of the catechumens of S. Chrysost. in Paris Graec. 328, 330, 392). Both S. Basil and S. Chrysostom are mentioned in the tracts, of unknown- date, attributed to S. Proclus and S. John the Faster (p. liii above). The PRESANCTIFIED is first mentioned in the Paschal Chronicle an. 645 (p. 348. 20-28 below); then in the 52nd canon in 10 Trullo, A. D. 692 (Bruns Canones i p. 53) and in the tract of [John the Faster]. It is generally attributed in mss, and editions to S. Gregory Dialogos, i. e. S. Gregory the Great of Rome; but otherwise to S. Epiphanius (Vat. Graec. 1213, Bodl. Cromw. 11) or to S. Germanus of Constantinople (Corsiniana 41 E 29, 41 E 31, Bodl. Auct. E. 5. 13), and a passage common to Theodore of Andida Comment. 15 liturg. 32 and Sophronius Comment. liturg. I states that some attribute it to S. James, others to S. Peter, and others to other authors: and in Sinai Graec. 1040 it is apparently assigned to S. Basil. See Mai Nov. patrum biblioth. v (4) pp. 97-99. (The liturgy of Gregory Dialogos in the second edition of the Liturgy of S. Peter Paris 1595 [Swainson p. ix], is not the Presanctified as 20 Swainson states [ib. note 1] but a greek version of the Roman mass).

(3) In Appendix Q illustrations are given of the development of the Prothesis from the ninth to the sixteenth century.

Such illustrations might be indefinitely multiplied, but those collected below are enough to indicate the line of development and to dispose of the view that 25 the Prothesis in anything like its present complicated form is of so early a date as is suggested by Neale in History of the holy eastern church: introd. p. 346, note g. Cp. Pitra Hymnographie de l'église grecque p.64. (Where, to save space, references to the body of the book are given in this appendix, it is meant only that the texts correspond, not that the readings are absolutely identical.)


(4) There are several Greek commentaries. (a) S. Maximus Muoray@yía (Migne P. G. xci. 657-717), of which a latin version was published in Liturgiae patrum Paris 1560. See below p. 537. (B) S. Germanus I of Constantinople († c. 740) 'Iotopía ékkλŋoiaσtiKÝ kai μvotikǹ dewpia (Migne P.G. xcviii. 384-453) published in Aurovpyíaı 35 Tŵv åyiwν matéρwv Paris 1560, and in latin in Liturgiae patrum Paris 156o: and in ̔Η θεία λειτουργία ἑρμηνευμένη παρὰ τοῦ ἐν ἁγίοις πατρὸς ἡμῶν Γερμανοῦ . . . μετὰ καὶ ἄλλων τινῶν . . . Venice 1639, 1690. The text has been interpolated, probably in the eleventh or twelfth century, and its original form is at present irrecoverable. 40 See below. (7) S. Theodore the Studite (+ 826) 'Epμnveía τns belas


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