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of large sums of money. It hap- | bishops, who had not expected to pened, indeed, that several persons be insulted by their own countrywho had thus compounded with men, were seized and treated as the Spaniards, were pillaged by harshly as the rest. the Germans, or were obliged also Everywhere might be seen perto buy them off with more money. sons being tormented with the The Marchioness of Mantua paid utmost barbarity, to extort money fifty thousand ducats to guarantee from them, or to make them disher mansion against the greed of close where their property was the soldiery ; this sum was fur- hid. All the objects of devotion nished to her by the merchants and the relics with which the who had taken refuge with her, churches were filled, were trodden and the story was that her son, under foot, after having been deDon Ferdinand, had the fifth part spoiled of their ornaments ; and to of it. The Cardinal de Sienne, these acts of sacrilege the German always, like his ancestors, a friend barbarity added blasphemies and to the emperor, was made prisoner outrages beyond number. What by the Germans, who also sacked was of least ue, and what the his palace, though the cardinal had soldiers had not thought it worth arranged with the Spaniards to be while to touch, was pillaged by the spared this misfortune ; barehead- peasants from the estates of the ed and loaded with blows, they Colonnas who came to Rome when conducted him to the Borgo, and all was over. Cardinal Colonna, he only got out of their hands by who arrived the day after the giving them five thousand ducats. taking of the city, rescued several The Cardinals de la Minerve and ladies who had sought refuge in Ponant suffered almost the same his palace. It was said that the treatment. They paid their ran- | booty of the soldiers, in gold and som to the Germans, but that did silver and precious stones, was not prevent them from being both worth more than a million of led ignominiously through the ducats, and that the amount of town by these madmen. The the ransoms went far beyond this Spanish and German cardinals and

sum.

THE FALL OF CARDINAL WOLSEY.

(Lord Herbert of Cherbury's Life of Henry VIII.)

1530.

CARDINAL WOLSEY being now divers malversations of the cardivested of his late power (wherein dinal, was so far from disguising he had the glory, in some sort, to them, that she even misinterpreted have been superior to his king) his better actions. Edmund Camand for the rest being left alone, pion adds to these reasons, that and exposed not only to a general Sir Francis Bryan being in Rome, hatred, but to the private machi- did, by the means of a familiar nations of the present and future of one who kept the pope's papers, queen, became sensible of his ill obtain a letter of the cardinal's, estate ; though yet he did not which wrought his ruin in this believe himself so near his over- manner : having first showed her throw, as it appeared afterwards. the cardinals handwriting, and But what could he hope for, when then corrupted her, this courtesan such puissant enemies did procure so dexterously performed the rest, his destruction ? Therefore, though as upon pretence of visiting her he received some advices from servant in his study, she conveyed Rome, which might argue a care away this letter and gave it Bryan, rather than a power for his con- who failed not immediately to send servation, yet in effect what secret it to our king. Which relation of intelligence soever passed betwixt Campion, though I will not conthe pope and him, came to the tradict, yet I suppose to be the emperor first, and after to Queen more improbable, that I find by Catherine, who cunningly caused original despatches, Bryan was it to be whispered into the king's come from Rome before any arguears, by some more indirect ways, ment of the king's disfavour to the than it could possibly be imagined cardinal appeared. Howsoever, to proceed from her. Likewise the way the king took to overMistress Anne Boleyn, having throw him was merely legal, learned from some of the king's though approaching to summum wisest and gravest counsellors jus, after most men's opinion.

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In the carriage whereof yet that there were a thousand pieces. Besecrecy was used, that the cardinal sides, the walls of his gallery on did not, or, perchance, out of great- the one side were hung with rich ness of mind would not, take notice suits of cloth of gold, cloth of of what was intended against him. silver, cloth of tissue, and cloth of So that though the bill or indict-bodkin ; on the other side was ment was (Oct. 9) put in (at the placed the most glorious suit of beginning of Michaelmas term), yet copes that had been seen in Engdid he ride that day to the chan- land. In a chamber near to the cery with his accustomed pomp. gallery was a great cupboard of Of which our king being adver-plate, of massy gold ; and in a tised, thought fit to forbid him the chamber adjoining, vast quantity place; as thinking it indecent, of other plate. All which the that a man, who was upon terms cardinal commanded Sir William of conviction, should administer Gascoyne (his treasurer) to deliver that high charge. Therefore the to the king, when he was required. Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk were sent, Oct. 18, to require the And thus fell the cardinal, toGreat Seal of him. But the car-gether with all his vast possessions, dinal, instead of rendering it, dis-into the king's hands. Concerning puted their authority, alleging the which the critics of the time gave place of Lord Chancellor was by sundry opinions, the most part yet the king's letters patents given him supposing him capable of the king's during life. The two dukes here- mercy, had he been either less rich, upon returned to court, bringing or more humble. They thought the next day the king's letters to him indeed condemned by law, the cardinal, who, having read but by the rigour of it. All which them, delivered immediately the they considered the more, that the Great Seal ; in sequence thereof, cardinal had so long exercised his also submitting himself to the legatine power, without that the king, who commanded him to king either seemed to dislike it, leave York Place, and simply to or any other had questioned him depart to Esher, a country house for it. Therefore, howsoever he near Hampton Court, belonging to was convicted by form of justice, the Bishop of Winchester. He they yet cleared him in great part, charged his officers also to inven- and not they only, but the king. tory and bring forth his goods. Insomuch, that the impression Whereupon much brave furniture taken of his ancient services was made into hangings, besides whole not defaced wholly. So that notpieces of rich stuffs, were set upon withstanding his best goods were divers tables in his house ; the seized on, and that the king might variety and number whereof may have taken therewith his other be imagined, when (as Cavendish possessions, and (with them) his hath it) of fine Holland cloth alone entire liberty, yet he both sent

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him a protection, and left him the neglecting, in the meanwhile, to bishoprics of York and Winchester, use those friends he had left in which he had lately given him court, for the reintegrating him after the death of Richard Fox, into his former favour; or when only he confined him for the pre- that could not be done, for the sent to his house at Esher, till his making his fall more easy. For further pleasure was signified. which purpose one Master Thomas Being upon

his

way, the king Cromwell, his servant (who came (touched with some compassion) afterwards to great preferment), sent him by one Master Norreys, was employed, but Mistress Boleyn not only a gracious message, but secretly opposed all. So that the a ring, which was a token betwixt cardinal, being now in a manner them, when any special business hopeless of regaining the king's good was recommended. Upon receiv- opinion, dismissed (not without tears ing whereof, the overjoyed car- on both sides) the greatest part of dinal alighted from his mule, and his numerous family, without other in the dirt upon his bare knees reward than what Master Cromacknowledged the comfort he re- well and some of his chaplains did ceived. To show his thankfulness freely contribute. The king hearalso to Master Norreys, he pre- ing the cardinal to be somewhat sented him with a chain of gold, humbled, sent (Nov. 1) Sir John at which a piece of the cross did Russel with a turquoise ring to hang. But it troubled him much him as a token of his care and that he had nothing to send to the affection. But it was not gifts king; till, at last, having espied in that the cardinal expected from his train a facetious natural, in the king, but liberty and restituwhom he took much delight, he tion to his former greatness ; desired Master Norreys to present which yet was so much in vain, him to the king. Which promo

as his offences were daily exagtion yet this fellow (for the ap- gerated. For as the king did not proving himself no counterfeit) think it enough that he had pardid so slight, as the cardinal was ticularly advantaged himself of the forced to send six of his tallest cardinal's punishment, unless he yeomen to bring him to court.

use thereof to the The cardinal coming at last to general, so he called (Oct. i) a Esher, found himself so destitute council of the nobles to sit in the of all necessaries, as, till one Mas- Star Chamber, who having suffiter Arundel first, and after the ciently condemned him, he afterBishop of Carlisle provided him, wards permitted him to the Parhe wanted even the most ordinary liament, which began Nov. 3, parts of household stuff. And 1529. Wherein the king also thus the ill-accommodated cardinal did wisely, since by interesting passed some weeks in expectation the public in his condemnation, of the king's further pleasure, not I he both declined the censure of

made some

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those who thought the late pro- fort herein, saying, “the king was ceedings to have been of the determined to dissolve them, severest, and endeared his people though whether he meant to reby putting the power of punishing store them again and found them him into their hands. Therefore in his own name, he knew not ; they took it as an entire satisfac- but wishes him to be content,” etc. tion for all they had hitherto Howsoever, in the trafficofthese and suffered ; and by applauding of other lands, as well as negotiating the king, made him know how his master's business, Cromwell thankfully they took this favour. showed that dexterity, which at last And thus did the king return to won him much credit, both with the that former good opinion he had king and his principal counsellors. of his subjects.

And now the cardinal being And now Cardinal Wolsey, it commanded to York, had no exseems, had tried his utmost skill cuse for retarding his journey for recovering of the king's favour; but want of means, which also whereof, also, some hope was given he signified to the king ; who him in his being permitted to re- thereupon sent him a thousand move to Richmond. But as his pounds, with which and a train, enemies suspected he would make reduced now to about one hundred use of this nearness to obtain and sixty persons, he (March) set access to the king, so they labour- forth, giving by the way much ed instantly to send him to the alms, and not a few other argilnorth. Wherein they prevailed ments of devotion, which also made at length, obtaining further, that him gracious with the people, who the revenues of the bishopric of resorted from all places adjoining Winchester and abbey of St. to him. And thus, with slow and Albans, as also some other places unwilling removes, he came to of his, forfeited by the præmunire, Cawood Castle near York, about might be applied in part to the the end of September 1530, where king's servants ; a pension only he prepared, according to the anout of Winchester being reserved cient custom, to be installed with to the cardinal. The revenues much ceremony about a month also of his two colleges were torn after ; all access to the choir being and divided, which grieved him till then forbidden. But whether more than any other affliction : the solemnity of this action was insomuch, that he wrote to the thought by our king to be unreaking humbly, as on his knees with sonable and misbecoming one in weeping eyes, that the college of disgrace, or that otherwise the Oxford might stand, and impor- cardinal had cast forth some distuned Cromwell to this purpose, contented words which were related since they are in a manner, saith again to the king : here, certainly, he, opera manuum tuarum.” But began his final ruin, which, as his Cromwell returned him no com- enemies (at this distance) did with

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