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The words of the Shorter Catechism, being advised with the greatest judg ent, and with a peculiar view, both for establishing scripture-truth, and likewise for refuting contrary errors, they are therefore, in this edi. tion particularly taken notice of: and to distinguish them, they are inclosed within crotchets, that the reader may the more easily discern how they are explained in this treatise.

As the Confession of Faiih and Larger Catechism, are granted to be the best interpreters of the Shorter, the latter is carefully explained by the former; and several of the following questions and answers, framed from these standards, as will easily appear by the quotations taken from them, and the references made unto them on the margin.

In this edition, almost every answer is confirmed by the scriptures; many are added, where they were formerly wanting, and several exchanged, for those that are thought more apposite.-In the former impressions, the scripture-proofs were, mostly, subjoined to the end of the answer; but now, each scripture is immediately annexed to that part of the answer it is designed to confirm, that it may be consulted with greater certainty, and less trouble, by those who incline to bring every position, here advanced, to the unerring rule and standard of the word.—Some of the longer answers are divided into two or more, for sake of the memory; and some additional questions are interspersed, through the whole, for illustration.-A short Index is likewise annexed, of the most material things in both parts.

I have employed my spare time for several months, in studying to make this edition as correct and useful to the public as I could; and now I leave it in the hands of the God of truth, that he may use it for the purposes of his own glory, in edifying the body of Christ, till they all come, in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ.


Glasgow, Jan. 14, 1765.



Quest. 1. What is the chief end of man?

Ans. Man's chief end is to glorify God, and enjoy him for ever.

Q. 1, What is meant by man's Q. 5. Doth the chief end ex[chief end]?

clude subordinate ends? A. That which ought to be A. No: for, in aiming prinman's chief aim and design; and cipally at the glory of God, men that which he should seek after may use the supports of natural as his chief happiness.

life for refreshing their bodies, Q. 2. What ought to be man's 1 Cor. x. 31; and be diligent in chief aim and design?

their particular callings, that they A. The glory of God: 1 Chron. may provide for themselves and xvi. 28, 29. “ Give unto the their families, 1 Thess. iv. 11, 12. Lord, ye kindreds of the people, 1 Tim. v. 8. -give unto the Lord the glory Q. 6. Why ought the glory of due unto his name.”

God to be the chief end and deQ. 3. What should he seek sign of man? after as his chief happiness? A. Because it is God's chief

A. The enjoyment of God:end in man's creation, preserIsa. xxvi. 8. "The desire of cur vation, redemption, and regesoul is to thy name, and the neration: Prov. xvi. 4. “The remembrance of thee."

Lord hath made all things for Q. 4. What connexion is there himself;" and therefore it ought betwixt the glorifying God, and to be man's chief end likewisethe enjoying of him?

1 Cor. iv. 19, 20. “Ye are not A. They are connected by your own; for ye are bought rich and sovereign grace, per- with a price: therefore glorify God suading and enabling the sinner in your body, and in your spirit, to embrace Jesus Christ as the which are God's.” only way to God and glory: Eph. Q. 7. How manifold is the ii. 8. "By grace are ye sav- glory of God? ed, through faith, and that not A. Twofold; his essential and of yourselves; it is the gift of declarative glory. God.” John xvi. 6.--"1," says Q. 3. What is God's essential Christ, “ am the way;-noman co- glory? meth unto the Father, but by me.” A. It is what he is absolutely

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in himself. Exod. iii. 14.-I AM by a perfect obedience since THAT I AM.

Adam's fall?
Q. 9. What is his declarative

A. Never, until CHRIST, the glory?

second Adam, appeared as A. His showing, or making new covenant head, Isa. xlii. 21. known his glory, to, in, and by and xlix. 3. his creatures, Isa. xliv. 23.-2 Q. 17. How did Christ, the seThess. i. 10.

cond Adam, glorify God, as our Q. 10. Can any creature what- surety and representative on soever add any thing to God's earth? essential glory?

A, By finishing the work the A. No: for his essential glory Father gave him to do, John xvü. is infinite, eternal, and unchange- 4. able, Job xxxv. 7.

Q., 18. What was the work the, Q. 11. Do not the heavens and Father gave him to do? the earth, and all inferior crea- A. It was to assume a holy tures, glorify God?

human nature, Luke i. 35 ; to A. Yes: in a passive way, all yield a perfect sinless obedience his works praise him; Psal. xix. to the whole law, Mat. iii. 15; and 1. and cxlv. 10.

to give a complete satisfaction to Q. 12. How ought man to justice, for man's sin, by his (glorify] God?

meritorious sufferings and death,, A. Man being endued with a Luke xxiv. 26. reasonable soul, ought to glorify Q. 19. How does Christ glorify God in an active way, Psal. Ixiii. God in heaven? 4. by declaring his praise, Psal. A. By appearing in the precü. 1, 2. and essaying to give sence of God for us, Heb. ix.' him the glory due to his name, 24. and applying, by the power Psalm xcvi. 7.

of his Spirit, that redemption Q. 13. How was man to glorify which he purchased by the God in a state of innocence?

price of his blood on earth, Tit. A. By a perfect, personal, and iii. 5, 6. perpetual obedience to his law, Q. 20. When is it that a sin. Gen. i. 27; and by giving him ner begins uprightly to aim at the the glory of all his works, chap. glory of God? ii. 19.

A. When, through a faith of Q. 14. Has man answered his God's operation, he believes in chief end?

Christ: Acts viji. 37. 39.-" The A. No: for, “ all have sinned, eunuch answered and said, I and come short of the glory of believe that Jesus Christ is the Son God," Rom. iii. 23.

of God.-And he went on his way Q. 15. Has God then lost his rejoicing." end in making man?

Q. 21. Can no man glorify God A. No: for God will glorify acceptably, unless he first believe his justice and power upon some, in Christ? and his grace and mercy upon A. No: for, " Without faith others of Adam's family, Rom. it is impossible to please him.” ix. 22, 23.

Heb. xi. 6; and, “Whatsoever is Q. 16. Was ever God glorified not of faith is sin,” Rom. xiv. 23,

Q. 22. How is it that faith in Q. 28. Why should we aim at Christ glorifies God?

the enjoyment of God? A. As it sets its seal to the A. Because he is the chief good record of God, John iii. 33. and of the rational creature, Psal.cxvi. unites us to Christ, from whom 7. and nothing else besides him, only our fruit is found, Hos. xiv. is either suitable to the nature, or 8.

satisfying to the desires of the Q. 23. Is not God glorified by immortal soul, Psal. cxliv. 15. the good works of believers? Q. 29. How may a finite creaA. Yes :

“Herein," says ture (enjoy) an infinite God? Christ, “is my Father glorified, A. By taking and rejoicing in that ye bear much fruit,” John | him, as its everlasting and upxy. 8.

making portion, Psal. xvi. 5, 6. Q. 24. What are these fruits and xlviii. 14. brought forth by believers, where- Q. 30. Did our first parents, by God is glorified?

in a state of innocence, enjoy A. They may be summed up God? in faith working by love, Gal. A. Yes : there was perfect v. 6; or, their aiming, in the friendship and fellowship bestrength of Christ, at universal tween God and them; for, “ God obedience to the law, as the rule made man right,” Eccl. vii. of duty, Phil. iv. 13. “I can do 29. all things through Christ which Q.31. What broke that blessstrengtheneth me.

ed friendship and fellowship? Q. 25.- How should we glorify A. Sin: our iniquities have God in eating and drinking? separated between us and our

A. By taking a right to the God, and our sins have hid his face supports of natural life, through from us, Isa. lix. 2. the second Adam, the heir of all Q. 32. Can a sinner, in a nathings, who has purchased a cove- tural state, enjoy God, or have nant right to temporal, as well as any fellowship with him? spiritual mercies, for his people, A. No: for, " What com1 Cor. iii. 21–23. and thankfully munion hath light with darkacknowledging God for the same, ness? and what concord bath 1 Tim. iv, 4, 5.

Christ with Belial?” 2 Cor. vi. Q. 26. How must we glorify 14, 15. God in our religious worship, and Q. 33. How may a lost sinner other acts of obedience?

recover the enjoyment of God, A. By doing all that we do in and fellowship with him? the name of the Lord Jesus, Col. A. As we lost it by our fall in iii. 17; worshipping God in the the first Adam, so it can only be Spirit, rejoicing in Christ Jesus, recovered by union with a second and having no confidence in the Adam, Rom. v. 18, 19; for there flesh, Phil. iii. 3.

is no coming to God but by him, Q. 27. What is it, next to the John xiv. 6. glory God, we should aim at?

Q. 34.

Vhen is it that a sinner A. Next unto God's glory, we begins to enjoy God? should aim at the enjoyment of A. When, having received him, Psal. lxxiii. 25, 26. Christ by faith, he rests upon

him, and upon God in him, for Q. 40. What is the difference righteousness and strength, Isa. as to the manner of the enjoyment xlv. 24. and out of his fulness here and hereafter? receives, and grace for grace, A. Here, the enjoyment is meJohn i. 16.

diate; by the intervention of Q. 35 What are the external means; hereafter, it will be immemeans by, or in which, we are diate, without any use of these to seek after the enjoyment of means : “Now we see through a God?

glass darkly; but then FACE TO A. In all the ordinances of his FACE," 1 Cor. xiii. 12. worship, public, private and se- Q. 41. What is the difference cret; such as the word read and as to the measure of the enjoyment heard, the sacraments, prayer, in this life, and that which is to meditation, fasting, thanksgiving, come? and the like.

A. In this life the enjoyment is Q. 36. Are the saints of God only partial; in that which is to admitted to enjoy him in these? come, it will be full and complete,

A. Yes: they are the trist- 1 John iii. 2.-here, the enjoying places where his name is ment is only in the seed, or first recorded, and to which he has fruits; there it will be in the full promised to come and bless harvest, Psal. cxxvi. 6. them. Exod. xx. 24.-" In all Q. 42. Is the partial enjoyment places where I record my name, of God in grace here a sure pledge I will come unto thee, and I will of the full enjoyment of him in bless thee."

glory hereafter? Q.37. What scripture-evidence A. It is both the pledge and have we, of their enjoying God in earnest thereof, Eph. i. 13, 14. the duties and ordinances of his Psal. lxxxiv. 11. appointment?

Q. 43. Doth the gracious soul, A. We find them much em- in that state, fully receive its chief ployed in religious duties, Song end? iii. 1, 2, 3; and expressing the A. Yes, in regard that then it utmost regard for the ordinances shall be brimful of God, and cele. of his grace, Psalm lxxxiv. 1, 2. brate his praises with high and

Q. 38. What satisfaction has uninterrupted Hallelujahs through the soul in the enjoyment of all eternity. Psal. xvi. 11. Isa. God?

A. Unspeakably more gladness Q. 44. Why is the glorifying than when corn, wine, and all God made the leading part of earthly comforts, do most abound, man's chief end, and set before Psalm iv. 7.

the enjoyment of him? Q. 39. Is there any difference A. Because, as God's design betwixt the enjoyment of God in glorifying himself was the reain this life, and that which the son and foundation of his design saints shall obtain in the life to in making man happy in the come?

enjoyment of him, Rom. xi. 26.; A. Not an essential, but a gra- so he has made our aiming at dual difference, as to the manner his glory, as our chief end, to be and measure of it.

the very way and means of our

Xxxv. 10.

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