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tation to repentance, in which the prophet reminds the people of the judgments which overtook their fathers for the rejection of similar appeals.

The Second Prophecy contains nine visions, all seen in one night. In the Vision of the Horseman, Michael, the Angel of the Covenant, appears as a warrior seated on a red horse, accompanied by other horsemen, who have been reconnoitreing the nations, and report them, in contrast to unhappy Judah, to be prosperous ; whereupon the interpreting angel (i.e.

, Gabriel, Dan. viii. 16) offers a prayer for Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, which is answered by assurances that the city and temple shall be rebuilt, the towns overflow with prosperity, and judgments fall

upon the oppressing nations—assurances which were partly fulfilled in the time of Zechariah, and more fully in the following century, under Ezra and Nehemiah. In the Vision of the Four Horns and Four Smiths, the destruction is foretold of the four great Empires which had oppressed, or should oppress, Judæa. In the Vision of the Surveyor is figured the rebuilding of Jerusalem; the captives yet in Babylon are exhorted to return, and promised Jehovah's presence in the holy city, and blessings are foretold to come upon them, and on many nations through them. In the Vision of the High-Priest advocating the cause of the people (“ The Body of Moses”) before the Angel Michael, and in the Vision of the Golden Lampstand, is promised the restoration of the State and of the Church, under Joshua and Zerubbabel, the “two anointed ones;" the latter, the legal heir to the throne of David, being specially designated “The Branch," and both being types of the Messiah. In the Vision of the Flying Roll we have a representation of the judgments which should

purge the holy land; while in that of the Woman in the Bushel is shown the promised removal of the sin and idolatry of the people to their more appropriate home in Babylon. In the Vision of the Four Chariots are represented the emissaries of divine judgment on the Northern and Southern enemies of Judah, and especially the satisfaction of divine justice in the overthrow of Babylon, partially accomplished by the dismantling of its walls a few years later, before the close of the reign of the same Darius. The concluding section describes either a vision or a symbolical action actually performed by the prophet, who is directed to take of the precious metals, recently brought by three Jews from Babylon as gifts to the temple, and form crowns, to be placed on the head of the High-Priest, and afterwards to be laid up in the sacred courts as a memorial of the donors and of their host, and as a pledge of future tribute from afar,


(B. C. 520).


(c. 1. 1-6). In the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet, saying, “The Lord hath been sore displeased with your fathers; but say thou unto them :

Thus saith the Lord of Hosts ; Turn ye to me
And I will turn to you, so saith the Lord !
O be not as your fathers, unto whom
The prophets of old time have cried, and said,
“Thus saith the Lord of Hosts, O turn ye now
From all your evil ways and evil deeds;"
But they nor heard nor hearkened, saith the Lord.
Your fathers, where are they? The prophets, too,
Live they for ever? But my words and laws,
Which to my faithful seers I gave in charge,
O'ertook they not your fathers? Then to me
At length they turned and cried, “E'en as the Lord
Decreed to deal with us after our ways
And evil deeds, thus surely hath he done!"


(cc. 1. 7— VI. 15.)

(B.C. 520.)

§ 1 (1. 7–17.)

THE VISION OF THE HORSEMAN. On the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month, which is the month Sebat, in the second year of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet, saying, I saw in the night, and behold a Man riding on a red horse, and he stood among the myrtles in the valley; and behind him were red horses, bay, and white. Then said I, “O my lord, what are these?” And the angel who talked with me said unto me, “ I will cause thee to see what these are.” And the Man who stood among the myrtles answered and said, " These are they whom the Lord hath sent to walk to and fro through the earth.” And they answered the Angel of the Lord who stood among the myrtles (i.e. the Horseman) and said, “ We have walked to and fro through the earth, and, behold, all the earth remaineth still, and is at rest.” Then the Angel of the Lord answered and said, “O Lord of Hosts, how long wilt thou not have mercy on Jerusalem and on the cities of Judah, against which thou hast had indignation these seventy years ?" And the Lord answered the angel who talked with me with good and comfortable words. And the angel who talked with me said unto me, Cry thou saying,

Thus saith the Lord of Hosts, I, even I,
Am very jealous for Jerusalem
And for my Zion. I am sore displeased
With heathen nation's resting at their ease :
My wrath against my people was but small,
But these increased their woe with zealous haste.
Now, therefore, saith the Lord, I am returned
To bless Jerusalem with plenteous grace.
Thus saith the Lord, My temple shall be built
Within its walls, and the surveyor's line
Shall soon be stretched within Jerusalem.
With plenty shall my cities yet o'erflow;
The Lord again Himself will comfort bring
To Zion, and will choose Jerusalem!

$ 2 (c. 1. 18-21.) THE VISION OF THE HORNS AND SMITHS. Then I lifted up my eyes, and saw, and behold four horns. And I said unto the angel who talked with me, “What are these?” And he answered me, “ These are the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem. And the Lord showed me four smiths. Then said I, “What are these come to do ?” And he spake, saying, “ These are the horns which have scattered Judah, so that no man lifted up his head; but these are come to break them off, to cast away the horns of the nations who lifted up their horn over the land of Judah to scatter it."

§ 3 (c. II.)

THE VISION OF THE SURVEYOR. I lifted up my eyes again, and looked, and behold a man with a surveying line in his hand. Then said I, “Whither goest thou?" And he said unto me, “I measure Jerusalem, to see what is the breadth thereof, and what is the length thereof."

And, behold, the angel who talked with me went forth and another angel went out to meet him, and said unto him, "Run, speak to this young man,” saying :

Soon shall Jerusalem be full of men
And cattle as the hamlets of the plain.
And I, the Lord, will be a fiery wall
Around her, and the glory in her midst.
Arise ye! Flee from out the northern land !
Far as the winds

I spread you, saith the Lord.
O Zion, haste ! Escape thee! Cease to dwell
With Babel's daughter! Thus the Lord hath said,

My glory shall be shown no more on thee,
But on thy foes; for he who toucheth thee
Toucheth the tender apple of mine eye.
For, lo! I shake my hand against them soon,
And by their servants shall their wealth be spoiled.
(Then shall ye know that I am sent of God.)
Sing and rejoice, O Maid of Zion! sing,
For I the Lord will come to dwell with thee;
And in that day shall many nations come
To seek my face: my people shall they be.
And I the Lord with thee will come to dwell,
(Then shall ye know that I am sent of God)
Ànd Judah shall the Lord inherit now,
His portion in the holy land shall be,
And he again will choose Jerusalem.
Be silent, О all flesh, before the Lord,
For he hath risen from out his holy place.

$ 4 (c. 111.) THE VISION OF THE HIGH-PRIEST. And he showed me Joshua the High-Priest standing before the Angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right hand to oppose him. And the Lord said unto Satan, “The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan; even the Lord who hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee: is not this a brand plucked out of the fire ?" Now Joshua was clothed with filthy garments, and stood before the Angel. And he answered and spake to those that stood before him, saying, “Take away the fiīthy garments from him." And to him he said, “Behold I have caused thine iniquity to pass away from thee, and I will clothe thee with goodly raiment.” Then he said, “Let them set a fair mitre upon his head.” So they set a fair mitre upon his head, and clothed him with garments. And the Angel of the Lord was standing by. And the Angel of the Lord testified unto Joshua, saying :

Thus saith the Lord of Hosts, If thou wilt walk
In all my ways, and all my precepts keep,
Then thou shalt rule my house and keep my courts,
And these my angels shall be e'er thy guides.
Hear now, O Joshua and thy fellow priests
Who sit beside thee, for they are for signs,
Lo! I bring forth my servant, e'en the Branch
Of David's root. See this foundation stone
Which I have laid when Joshua by it stood,
Lo! I, the Lord, have graved seven eyes thereon.
And, in one day, will I far off remove
The sins of all this land, and each shall ask
His neighbour to sit down beneath his vine
And shady fig : so saith the Lord of Hosts.

(c. iv. § 5) THE VISION OF THE GOLDEN LAMPSTAND. And the angel who talked with me came again and aroused me, as a man that is waked out of sleep, and said unto me, “What seest thou?" And I said, “I have looked, and behold a lampstand all of gold, with a bowl upon the top of it, and its seven lamps upon it, and seven pipes to the seven lamps which are upon it, and two olive trees by it, one upon the right side of the bowl, and the other upon the left side of it. And I answered and spake to the angel who talked with me, saying, “What are these, my lord ?" Then the angel who talked with me answered and said unto me,“ Knowest thou not what these are ?" And I said, “No, my lord.” Then he answered and spake unto me, saying, “This is the word of the Lord unto Zerubbabel,” saying:

Not by the arm of might, nor human power,
But by my Spirit, saith the Lord of Hosts !
And what art thou before Zerubbabel,
Thou mighty hill? Thou art become a plain !
He shall bring forth the head-stone of my House

And joyful cry, Grace! Grace be on it poured !
Moreover the word of the Lord came unto me, saying

Behold Zerubbabel's own hands have laid
The basis of my House, and the same hands
That laid the first shall lay the highest stone,
(Then shall ye know that I am sent of God).
The day of little things who shall despise ?
They shall rejoice to see Zerubbabel
Stand at the top, the plummet in his hand.
Behold the seven engraven on the stone

Are the Lord's eyes, which run through all the earth. Then I answered and said unto him, "What are these two olive trees on the right side of the lampstand and on the left side of it?" And I answered again and said unto him, "What are these two olive branches, which, through the two golden pipes, empty out of themselves oil into the gold ?” And he answered me and said, “Knowest thou not what these are ?" And I said, "No, my lord.” Then said he, “These are the two anointed ones who stand by the Lord of the whole earth.”

§ 6 (c. v. 1-4.)

THE VISION OF TIIE FLYING ROLL. Then I lifted up my eyes again, and looked, and, behold, a roll flying. And he said unto me, " What seest thou ?” And I

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