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The adversative force of but is emphatically marked in this passage:

Messenger. Madam, madam

Cleopatra. Antony's dead ?-
If thou say so, villain, thou kill'st thy mistress :
But well and free,
If thou so yield him, there is gold, there
My bluest veins to kiss : a hand, that kings
Have lipped, and trembled kissing.

Messenger. First, madam, he's well.
Cleopatra. Why, there's more gold. But, sirrah, mark;

we use

the dead are well.-
Messenger. Good madam, hear me.

Cleopatra. Well, go to, I will;
But there's no goodness in thy face.


Messenger. Madam, he's well.
Cleopatra. Well said.
Messenger. And friends with Cæsar.
Cleopatra. Thou’rt an honest man.
Messenger. Cæsar and he are greater friends than ever.
Cleopatra. Make thee a fortune from me.
Messenger. But yet, madam-

Cleopatra.. I do not like but yet, it does alloy
The good precedence: fie upon but yet.
But yet is as a gaoler to bring forth
Some monstrous malefactor.

Antony and Cleopatra, ii. 5. 451. Professor Bain remarks (Grammar, p. 66):

It is a loose employment of this forcible word, to bring it in where there is no exception taken, or no arrest put upon a natural inference. • No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself.'

In this passage Professor Bain considers but unnecessary. It is also a common mistake to use it in the sense of now, as signifying the completion of a case in order to draw an inference. . Men are mortal; but (for ' now ') we are mon; therefore we are mortal.' still. This word appears to be derived from the adjective

still, and is used in the sense of yet. It is even more emphatic than but, suggesting a pause to hear what may be said by way of exception or opposition to the previous statements. 'Everything went against him, still he persisted.'



however. This word is compounded of how (see § 460, p.

253), and the word ever. It may be used either at the beginning of a sentence, or in the middle of a clause : as, ' However, this statement was not true;'or, “ This

statement, however, was not true.' Conjunctions of these three classes are termed Co-ordinating Conjunctions, because they join together co-ordinate clauses, or independent affirmations. For the so-called Subordinating or Continuative Conjunctions see Chapter XIV.




452. This is another case of Border Land. Just as we were unable to draw an exact line between Adjectives and Pronouns, so there is often a difficulty in discriminating between Adverbs and Conjunctions. Words which by some grammarians are termed Relative Adverbs or Conjunctive Adverbs, are termed by others Adverbial Conjunctions, Continuative Conjunctions, or Subordinating Conjunctions.

If we look closely, we shall find that there is some reason for this diversity of opinion ; because classes really have a tendency to run into one another. The great error consists in attempting to draw a hard and fast line, where the nature of things will not admit it.

453. First of all, we shall endeavour to explain what is meant by Relative Adverbs and Continuative Conjunctions. Beside the simple adverbs, which contain a positive meaning in themselves, as well, truly, there are others which refer to some adjoining clause for a completion of their meaning, as when, where, &c. These are to other adverbs what the pronoun is to the noun; or rather, what the relative pronoun is to the demonstrative pronoun; hence they are called relative adverbs. They are also called connective or conjunctive adverbs; and by some grammarians are reckoned among conjunctions.


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For example, to take while, as a specimen of this class. "He came while ... is not intelligible. The sense is suspended till some other clause is supplied : “He came while I was speaking.See Bain, Grammar, pp. 39, 40.

454. The term Continuative Conjunction appears to be taken from Harris's Hermes. Mr. Harris divides conjunctions into Connexive and Disjunctive; and then he subdivides the Connexives into (1) Copulatives, and (2) Continuatives. According to him, the Copulative does no more than barely couple sentences, and is therefore applicable to all subjects whose natures are not incompatible. Continuatives, on the contrary, by a more intimate connection, consolidate sentences into one continuous whole, and are therefore applicable only to subjects which have an essential coincidence. For example, it is not improper to say:

Lysippus was a statuary, and Priscian was a grammarian.

The sun shineth, and the sky is clear. But it would be absurd to say,

Lysippus was a statuary, because Priscian was a gram

marian; though not absurd to say,

The sun shines, because the sky is clear. The reason is that, with respect to the first, the coincidence is merely accidental; with respect to the last, it is essential, and founded in nature.-See Sir John Stoddart, Universal Grammar, p. 161; and compare Harris, Hermes, ii. 2.

Obs.These Continuative Conjunctions are otherwise termed

Subordinative or Subordinating Conjunctions, as uniting subordinate or dependent clauses to the prin

cipal clause of a sentence. It will be found that similar difficulties affect Relative or Conjunctive Adverbs and Continuative Conjunctions.

We may, indeed, distinguish by the form one class of Relative Adverbs namely, those which are derived from pronouns: where, whence, whither, when, how, and why. But this will not lead us very far. Many other particles, of various forms, are referred to the same class.

455. We have further to consider the function of these words.

What we have called the Accessory Clause in Correlative Sentences, is termed by Becker and his followers an Adverbial Clause, and is supposed to qualify some verb, or other word, in the Principal Clause. Mr. Mason says (Grammar, $ 422): -'An Adverbial Clause is one which, in its relation to the rest of the sentence, is equivalent to an adverb. It stands in the adverbial relation to a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Thus, in the sentence, 'He was writing a letter when I arrived,' the clause when I arrived indicates the time at which the action expressed by the verb was writing took place. The clause when I arrived is therefore in the adverbial relation to the verb was writing.'

Mr. Mason considers that the Relative or Conjunctive Adverbs, which introduce adverbial clauses, do double duty; they not only connect the adverbial clause with the principal clause, but themselves qualify the verb of the clause which they introduce. English Grammar, § 424. According to this view, in the example just given, when connects the adverbial clause when I arrived with the principal clause He was writing a letter; and also qualifies the verb arrived in the clause which it introduces.

Practically, it will be found that this view is encumbered with difficulties. Many of the explanations offered by Mr. Mason, in his examples, are exceedingly far-fetched. To my mind, the Correlative view is much simpler, and far safer. We have seen that these introductory particles are often used in pairs, one corresponding to the other. This is particularly the case in older stages of the language; and in the oldest forms we find two demonstrative particles, where a later stage exhibits a demonstrative and a relative. See § 49.

456. We have arranged these particles as they are used to express the various relations of Time, Place, &c.


II. 1. Time


then. 2. Place


there. whence

thence. whither

thither. 3. Manner


.. SO, 4. Degree (equality)


80. the

the. inequality

than. 5. Cause and Effect because

therefore. 6. Reason and Conclusion because

therefore. 7. Action (or State) and Result




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I. 8. Purpose and End

that. 9. Condition and Consequence


then. 10. Concession and Declaration


yet. 457. The following is an alphabetical list of the leading words (excluding compounds), which are employed as introductory particles. The terms assigned to them by Dr. Morell, Mr. Mason, and Professor Bain, respectively, are added. I would only remark, how unreasonable it is to expect schoolboys to distinguish accurately between Adverbs and Conjunctions, when the learned themselves cannot agree. 458. although. "all though.' See 'though.' Compare al

beit, al-so. an.

Bottom. I will aggravate my voice so, that I will roar you as gently as any sucking dove ; I will roar you an’t were any nightingale.

Midsummer Night's Dream, i. 2. Dame Quickly. 'A made a finor end, and went away, an it had been any Christom child.

Henry V. ii. 3. Prince Henry. What manner of man, an it like your majesty ?

1. Henry IV. ii. 4. Horne Tooke derives the word from an, the imperative of anan, 'to grant;' he compares it with if, which he takes from gif, the imperative of gifan 'to give;' and he thinks that if and an are words of very much the same meaning.--See Diversions of Purley, i. 106, 134, 153.

Mr. Wedgwood thinks that there is no radical distinction between an and and. He says, that in our older writers, it was not unusual to use an for and, and and in the sense of an or if. First an for and :

He nome with hym of Engelond god knygt mony one,
An myd grete poer and much folc thuderwarde wende anon.

Robert of Gloucester, p. 319. Secondly, and for if or an :

Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and I shulde rekene every vice
Which that she hath, ywis I were to nice.

Chaucer, Squire's Prologue. We find an if, and if, or simply an, in the sense of if.

I pray thee, Launce, an if thou seest my boy, bid him make haste.

Two Gentlemen of Verona, iii, 1. But and if that servant shall say in his heart, &c.

Luke xii. 45; compare Matth. xxiv. 48.

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