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Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe.

Ben Jonson. See Wedgwood, Dictionary of English Etymology: AN.

The derivation is doubtful. Mr. Wedgwood thinks that both sense and form might well be taken from the English even, in the sense of continuous,'' unbroken,' 'level.'

I have sometimes thought, that the original idiom may have exhibited two co-ordinate forms; something like this:

And thou dalliest, and I am thy foe. But this is a mere conjecture. Our wisest course is to reserve a knotty point like this for future investigation. 459. after. The same word as the preposition after. See

§ 472. In older English the usual form of the Con-
nective was after that; as, ' after that I was turned, I
repented.'-Jeremiah xxxi. 19.

Continuative Conjunction.-Morell.

Usually called a Conjunction; better an Adverb.Mason.

Relative Adverb, or Subordinating Conjunction.

Bain. as. Horne Tooke thinks that as is the same as the German

es, meaning it, that, or which. Sir John Stoddart approves of this etymology. Mr. Wedgwood, from a comparison of the German dialects, infers that as is a contraction from all-so, A.-S. eallswa, German also, als, as. Dr. Bosworth, in his Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, gives swa an 'adverb'80, thus ; and swa a'conjunction'as, so as, as if. In Anglo-Saxon we constantly find swa

swa used as correlatives, swa hit is swa thu segst, 80

is as thou sayest.' I have sometimes been tempted to think that as and so are both derived from swa. Termed:

Continuative Conjunction.—Morell.

Conjunctive or Connective Adverb, in some cases; Subordinative Conjunction, in other cases.—Mason.

Relative or Conjunctive Adverb; or Subordinating

Conjunction.-Bain. because. "by cause.' This word is not confined to sentences

denoting Cause and Effect; but is used to signify' by reason,' in sentences expressing the connection of Reason and Conclusion.

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Continuative Conjunction.—Morell.

Usually called a Conjunction ; better an Adverb.Mason.

Relative Adverb or Subordinating Conjunction.-Bain. before. The same word as the preposition before. See $ 481.

In older English, the usual form of the Connective
was before that: as, · Before that certain came from
James, he did eat with the Gentiles.'- Galatians ii. 2.
Termed :

Continuative Conjunction.Morell.
Usually called a Conjunction; better an Adverb.--

Relative Adverb or Subordinating Conjunction.-Bain. 460. for. The same word as the preposition for. See 474. In older English, a common form of the connective is for

that: as,

I doubt not but great troops would be ready to run; yet for that the worst men are most ready to remove,

I would wish them chosen by discretion of wise men.

Spenser, State of Ireland. We also find the forms for as much as and for why: For as much as the thirst is intolerable, the patient may

be indulged the free use of spaw water. -Arbuthnot,

On Diet.
Solyman had three hundred field-pieces, that a camel

might well carry one of them, being taken from the
carriage ; for why Solyman purposing to draw the
emperor unto battle, had brought no greater pieces of
battery with him.-Knolles, History of the Turks.

Continuative Conjunction.-Morell.
Subordinative Conjunction.—Mason.

Subordinating Conjunction.--Bain. how. A.-S. hu, originally an Interrogative Adverb, 'how?'

in what manner?' It is frequently used to introduce indirect questions: as, they asked, how he was.'


Continuative Conjunction.-Morell.
Relative Adverb.—Mason.

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461. if. This word plays a very important part in Horne

Tooke's argument about the origin of conjunctions. He
contends that many of them were originally the impera-
tive mood of verbs, and that if was gif, 'give,''grant:' as,
Forgiff me, Virgil, gif I thee offend.

Douglas, Preface, p. 11.
He shows that be, set, and many other verbs, are similarly
used. See the whole argument, Diversions of Purley, i. 103,
134, 149.
To the passages there quoted, we may add the following :-

I will attend her here,
And woo her with some spirit when she comes.
Say that she rail; why then I'll tell her plain
She sings as sweetly as a nightingale :
Say that she frown; I'll say she looks as clear
As morning roses newly washed with dew:
Say she be mute, and will not speak a word ;
Then I'll commend her volubility,
And say she uttereth piercing eloquence :
If she do bid me pack, I'll give her thanks
As though she bid me stay by her a week;
If she deny to wed, I'll craye the day
When I shall ask the banns, and when be married.

Taming of the Shrew, ii. 1. Sir John Stoddart says that the etymology deriving if from gif, the imperative of gifan'to give,' was proposed by Skinner and has never been disputed. 'Mr. Tooke therefore is right so far as he follows Skinner, who first showed the connection between if and give; but he is wrong when, trusting to his own theory, he says, "Our corrupted if has always the signification

“ of the English'imperative give and no other." In short he is right where he is not original, and original only where he is not right.'

Some modern grammarians reject Horne Tooke's etymology altogether, because they cannot find traces of the initial g in the cognate languages. Mr. Garnett says, that a comparison of the cognate languages proves that if is neither an imperative of give nor of any other verb; and quotes with approval the remark of Dr. Jamieson, in his Scottish Dictionary, that neither the Gothic jabai, the Alemannic ibu, ob, oba, nor the Icelandic if or ef can be formed from the verbs denoting to give in those languages. See Garnett, Philological Essays,



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p. 24. Mr. Wedgwood compares the Gothic iba, whether;' Old High German ibu, ob, if, whether;' Dutch of, oft, if, 'whether,' 'or;' German ob, whether ;' Old Norse ef, 'if,' efa, ifa, 'to doubt.' He appears to think that the notion of doubt' lies at the root of the word. But the argument from analogy is not absolutely decisive. It is possible, that of all the cognate languages, English alone exhibits this derivative. There is a fair amount of probability in favour of this etymology.


Continuative Conjunction.—Morell.
Subordinative Conjunction.—Mason.

Subordinating Conjunction.-Bain. 462. lest. The A.-S. adverb læs, 'less,' is used with the particles the and thy in the sense of lest: as, the læs

the læs the
thy læs

thy læs the
In English lest is generally used in the sense of that not.

Termed :

Continuative Conjunction.-Morell.
Subordinative Conjunction.—Mason.

Subordinating Conjunction.-Bain. 463. since. In Anglo-Saxon we find the adjective sid, late,

and an adverb of the same form, 'lately. We also find siððan, “afterwards,' after that, then,' since,' * further.' In Old English we meet with the forms sith, sithen, sithence, from which since appears to be

derived. And he axide his fadir how long is it sithe this hath falle

to him ?-Wiclif, Mark ix. For sithen the fadris dieden.-2 Peter iii. From signifying consequence in time, since is transferred to consequence in reasoning and causation : as,

O mighty God, if that it be thy will,
Sin thou art righteous judge, how may it be, &c.

Chaucer, Man of Lawe's Tale. See Wedgwood, Dictionary of English Etymology.


Continuative Conjunction.-Morell.


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Since: expressing a reason, Subordinative Conjunction.—Mason.

Adverbial clauses relating to Timo begin either with the relative adverbs which denote time, or with the so-called conjunctions, before, after, since, &c. These words have no adverbial relation to any word in the clause which they introduce.—Mason, § 424.

The words before, since, after, until, are usually set down as con-
junctions ; but they are in reality prepositions. The construction
really consists of a preposition followed by a substantive clause.
After [that] I arrived is tantamount to after my arrival.-Id. 8 289.

[This remark is applicable to before and after; but there is no
evidence to show that since was originally a preposition.]
Subordinating Conjunction.-Bain.
A.-S. swa, 'so,''thus.'
Termed :

Adverb.Mason, $$ 433, 435.

80, 'by that,' 'to that measure.' Adverb of Comparison.-Bain, p. 43.

80, 'therefore.' Co-ordinating Conjunction (Illative).

Id. p. 67.
464. than. Etymologically than and then are equally de-

rived from A.-S. thonne or thænne. In older English
we constantly find then for than. In the following
passages the particles are employed in significations
precisely the reverse of our present usage :-

Than hadde the douke ich understond,
A chief steward of alle his lond.

Amis and Amiloun.
Hire swyre is whittore then the swon.

Ballad on Alisoun. i.e. "Then had the duke, &c.' 'Her neck is whiter than the swan.'


Continuative Conjunction.-Morell.

Than is commonly set down as a conjunction. This is a mistake. It is a conjunctive adverb.'—Mason, § 267, note; compare the examples discussed, Mason, $$ 545-571.

Relative or Conjunctive Adverb.-Bain.
that. The same word as the pronoun that. Horne Tooke

discourses largely on this word. He endeavours to
show that 'the word that, call it as you please, either
Article or Pronoun or Conjunction, retains always one
and the same signification.'--See Diversions of Purley,
i. 81, 135, 256; ii. 61, 514, 555.

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