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past time.

for if it is'; and it is possible that this usage may have crept in from the Gaelic idiom. The following sentence appeared in a Cork newspaper :

' It appears from the Lord Lieutenant's answer to the petition in favour of Burke, that not only will he be executed, but in all probability every man who will be found guilty of high treason.'

79. Therefore, with regard to those suppositions which may or may not be the actual fact, we have authority, in English, for using the indicative in both clauses.

With reference to those conditional sentences which put an imaginary case, the non-existence of which is implied in the very terms, we must distinguish between present time and

In sentences relating to time present, we have the pastimperfect subjunctive in the if-clause : as,

If he were here, he would tell us.

If he were present, I would speak to him. In sentences relating to past time we have the auxiliary had in the if-clause : as,

If he had confessed his fault, I should have forgiven him. In older English we find had in both clauses : as,

I had fainted, unless I had believed.Psalm xxvii. 13. 80. Observe that, except in the second person singular, we cannot distinguish, in English, between the past perfect indicative had fainted, and the past perfect subjunctive had fainted. The Germans distinguish hatte (indicative) and hätte (subjunctive). For instance, the sentence just quoted might be rendered, in German,

Ich hätte verzweifelt, wenn ich nicht geglaubt hätte. 81. In Anglo-Saxon, we sometimes find the past imperfect subjunctive in such cases: for instance, our version reads, If thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.--John

but the Anglo-Saxon reads,

Gif thu wære her, nære min brothor dead.
If thou wert here, ne-were my brother dead.

xi. 21,

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10. Concession and Declaration. 82. In the older stages of the language, there are many examples of co-ordinate forms used to express this relation. The

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co-ordinate clauses are introduced respectively by though yet, or although . . . yet. If there is occasion to distinguish them, they may be termed the though-clause,' and the “yetclause.'

Sometimes we find the indicative in the though-clause, and at other times the subjunctive: as, Indicative : Though ye have lien among the pots, yet shall ye be as

the wings of a dove covered with silver. - Psalm

lxviii. 13. Although affliction cometh not forth of the dust yet

man is born unto trouble.Job v. 6, 7. Although thou sayest thou shalt not see him, yet judg

ment is before him.--Id. xxxv. 14. Subjunctive :

Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him.—Job xiii. 15.
Though the root thereof wax old in the earth

yet through the scent of water it will bud.—Id. xiv. 8, 9. Though his excellency mount up to the heavens, yet he

shall perish for ever.-Id. xx. 6, 7. 83. In the following passages the form does not help us to determine whether the verbs are in the indicative or the subjunctive :

Though I speak, my grief is not asswaged.—Job xvi. 6.
Though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my

flesh shall I see God.-Id. xix. 26. Sometimes we have the future indicative in the though

clause : as,


Although the fig-tree shall not blossom, neither shall fruit

be in the vines; the labour of the olive shall fail, and the fields shall yield no meat; the flock shall be cut off from the fold, and there shall be no herd in the stalls ; yet I will rejoice in the Lord, I will joy in the God of

my salvation.Habakkuk iii. 17, 18. 84. When an imaginary case is put, the non-existence of which is implied, we find the past-imperfect subjunctive in the though-clause; as, Whom, though I were righteous, yet would I not

Job viii. 15. Though I were perfect, yet would I not know my soul.

Id. viii. 21.


When the yet-clause becomes a Principal Clause, the particle yet is omitted, and the though-clause becomes accessory;


Though I speak, my grief is not asswaged.—Job xvi. 6.
Vain man would be wise, though man be born like
a wild ass's colt.

Id. xi. 12.

I saw

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85. That which we term the Subordinate Clause forms an integral part of the Compound Sentence.

The Subordinate Clause may be a Subject or an Object, in the whole Compound Sentence of which it forms a part; or it may take the place of an Adjective.

When the Subordinate Clause is a Subject or an Object, it is termed a Noun-clause.

When the Subordinate Clause stands in the place of an Adjective, it is termed an adjective-clause.

An attempt is sometimes made to divide sentences of this kind into two parts: (1) Principal Clause, (2) Subordinate Clause. For instance, in the sentence, ' I saw that something was wrong,' Professor Bain (English Grammar, p. 157) makes the following division :

Principal Clause. that something was wrong

Subordinate Clause. 86. But the clause that something was wrong' is the object of the verb “saw. The clause is comprised within the whole Compound Sentence, like a wheel within a wheel. In fact, the entire sentence, 'I saw that something was wrong,' occupies the position of a Principal Sentence, and the Subordinate clause that something was wrong' forms part of the whole.

In dealing with Correlative Sentences, it was easy to distinguish two separate clauses, which we termed the Principal Clause, and the Accessory Clause. But here we recognise no Principal Clause. We do not object to call the whole Compound Sentence a Principal Sentence ; with the understanding, that it comprises, or involves within itself, one or more Subordinate Clauses, whether they be Noun-clauses or Adjectiveclauses.

1. The Noun-clause. 87. The Noun-clause occupies the place, and follows the construction of a noun, in the whole compound sentence, of which it forms a part.

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therefore be used :-
1. As a subject-nominative :

That he said so is certain.
2. As a predicate-nominative :

The result was that they came forward. 3. As an objective :

His friends expect that he will succeed. 4. As a noun in apposition : The idea that money alone is wealth, has been the

cause of great mistakes. Sentences of this kind may be easily deduced from two Co-ordinates :

That he said so is certain.
First Co-ordinate: He said so.

Second Co-ordinate: That is certain.

That she said so] is certain.

His friends expect that he will succeed.
First Co-ordinate: He will succeed.
Second Co-ordinate: His friends expect that.

His friends expect that she will succeed.]
See Diversions of Purley, i. 83–97.
88. There are two kinds of Noun-clauses :

1. Those that contain a direct statement.

2. Those that involve an indirect question. 1. Those Noun-clauses which contain a direct statement, are generally introduced by the word that, commonly called a conjunction, though originally it is a demonstrative pronoun. For example, if my friend intends to visit me, and I am aware of the fact, I say,

I know that he will come, where that implie the fact, the following truth,' namely,

his intended coming.' Similarly, 'I know that he is returned' may be resolved into two sentences, "He is returned,' 'I know that fact.' See Key, Latin Grammar, § 847, note.

And so completely is that regarded as introductory of the


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following sentence, that we often omit the conjunction, and say, 'I know he will come.'

In Greek and Latin it is customary to give these sentences another turn, by which the subject-nominative of the Subordinate clause is made the subject-accusative, and the verb is thrown into the infinitive mood. He will come

Ille veniet.
I know that he will come .

Scio illum venturum esse. 89. 2. Noun-clauses involving an indirect question. These are introduced by relative pronouns, or by relative adverbs (otherwise termed "conjunctive adverbs'), as when, where, how, and some others. For example:

I know who you are.
I understand what you want.
I know when he will come.
I see how he did it,

2. The Adjective-clause. 90. The Adjective-clause follows the construction of an adjective, and may qualify any noun or pronoun in the Compound Sentence. Hence it may be attached to the subjectnominative, to an objective, or to any substantive which occurs in phrases qualifying the predicate-nominative, or the predicate-verb.

1. With the subject-nominative:
The man, who loves his country, will never speak ill of her

to strangers.
He is thrice armed, that hath his quarrel just.
The house, that Jack built, is wonderful.
The people, with whom you associate, are agreeable.
Hard was the hand that gave the blow.
Red were those lips that bled.

91. 2. With the predicate-nominative :
This man was the friend who promised to help us.
This is the letter which he wrote.
Spring is the time when blossoms come.
Ireland is the country where I dwell.

3. With an objective :
They want a leader that knows the way.
He lost all the money which he had saved.
I know a bank whereon the wild thyme blows.


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