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157. But men, while rude, study to express them. selves with force ; and many Hebrew idioms take their rise from this propensity. “ Always ” for “ frequently." “ Eternity” for “ a long du

ration." A negation for a comparative.“ Mercy and not sacrifice,for “ mercy rather than facrifice,” Hos. vi. 6. “ Receive my instruction, and not (rather than) filver ; for it follows, “ and knowledge rather than choice gold.”

Prov. viii. 10. (No 931.) The nominative absolute, setting the principal word strongly in view ; Psal. xi.


“ Jehovah ! in heaven is his throne.” Horsley's Hosea, Pref. Affirmative verbs for the negation or extenuation of their con

traries; “ To hate,” for “ not to love,” or “ to love kess.” Gen. xxix.

31. “ Leah was hated,” loved less than Rachel. ver. 30. (N° 884.)

Glass. l. 3. t. 3. can. 19.
So, things are said to act, or to be done, when it is only meant,

that they are known, discovered, thought to be, or acknow-
ledged. Gen. xxx. 13. “ Leah said, the daughters" 17wx
literally, “ shall make me blessed,” reckon me bleffed, or call
me blessed, happy. Eng. (No 883.)

Glass. ib. c. 17, 18. Hence also, the superlative formed by adding any of the names

of God. Gen. xxiii. 6. “ A prince of God.” Ch. xxx. 8. "Wrestlings of God.” Ruth ii. 20. « Blessed to the Lord,” very blessed. Jon. iii. 3. “ Great to the Lord,” very great.

158. Sometimes, these two propenfities, to speak with force, but without precision, operate in conjunction; and there are some Hebrew idioms which bear plain marks of that conjunction. Things are said to be done, when it is only meant that they are


notified, declared, or foretold. Gen. xxvii. 37. pv “I have made him thy lord, ” declared, foretold that he shall be. (N° 883.)

Glass. l. 3. t. 3. can. 15. Verbs of acting, fignify a number of related conceptions, none of

which come fully up to action; as only, the faculty or power of acting. Gen. xvi. 10. “ It Ihall not be numbered, " cannot be. Psal. xxii. 17. 900 “ I will tell (may tell) all my bones.” (No 876.)

Glass. ib. can. 5. The right of acting. Exod. xxxii. 5. box “ I will (juftly

might) come up into the midt of thee, gooibar and I will (might) consume thee.” (No 877.)

Glass. ib. can. 6. The duty of acting. Mal. i. 6. " A son 129 honoureth his

father,” not, “ always honours,” but ought, is obliged to honour him. (N° 878.)

Glass. ib. The will to act. Exod. xii. 48. “ If a stranger tun will keep

the pastover,” defire, incline to keep it ; for he muft first be circumcised. (N° 879.)

Glass. ib. can. 7. The endeavour or tendency to act. Gen. xxxvii. 21. « Reuben

heard, 107 gogo and he delivered him out of their hands,” endeavoured to deliver, ver. 22, &c. (No 879.)

Glass. ib. can. 8. A command to act. Gen. xl. 22. “ Pharaoh hanged the chief baker, ” commanded him to be hanged. (N° 881.)

Glass. ib. can. 22. Or, a permiffion to act. Deut. ii. 28. vin, literally, “thou thalt make me provide bread for money.

Eng. “ sell permit me to buy. (No 881.)


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Of the Language of the New Testament.

159. The Greek fanguage, in which the New Teftament is written, is, in many particulars of its structure and genius, very different from the Hebrew; but it has been so often and so fully explained, that it will not be necessary for us to examine it minutely.

160. On account of its being, at that time, the language most universally known, it was the fittest in which the New Testament could have been written.

Marsh's Michael. ch. 4. \ 1.

161. The language of the New Testament is not pure Greek, but Hellenistical, formed by a mixture of oriental idioms and expressions with those which are properly Greek.

Simon, Hift. Crit. N. T. p. 1. C. 27. Michael. ib. s. 6.
Macknight on Epistles, Ef. 4. and Supplement to Eff. 4.
Marsh's Michael. ch. 4. Ø 3.

162. Most of the words, however, and many of the phrases of the New Testament, are pure Greek; and so far as they are, they must be explained according to the usage of the classical writers, and, consequently, cannot be understood without having recourse to their works; for which reason, collections of correspondent


terms and phrases from them, with the sense in which
they use them, have very properly and successfully been
made by several learned men, and applied to the illus-
tration of the New Testament.
Grotius in Comment. paffim. Raphel. · Elsner, Palairet.

Wolfii curæ Philoloģ. in N. T. Bos.
Acts xxvij. 13. “ Loosing, they failed arron (found only here)
Th, Kgrony, nearer, close to, Crete."

Elfner. Palair. Bos. Raphel. in loc.
Rom. 1. 31. 2. Tim. iii. 3. 4sogyors GTTovoos

, seroppeegois occur not elsewhere, but frequent in Greek writers, " without na

tural affection, covenant-breakers, fierce." Mark xiv. 72. Kot stiBedav sxnoli, frequent in the N. T. but in no sense suitable here--very differently explained. (Critic. in loc.) Eng. " When he thought thereon ;” but rather, “ having gone out,” (Polyb.) which agrees with Matthew

and Luke. Raphel. Acts xvii. 31. Nisu. Tugaoxw. Molt obviously, “Giving faith,” but not true. "IF!5, “ a proof or argument,

(Aristot, Rhetor, 1. i. c. 1.) tisiv tagozar, “ to confirm, prove, give proof, render credible,” (Polyb. Plutarch.) So Eng.--" given assurance," Raphel.

163. In the language of the New Testament, all the dialects occur; but the attic is predominant, and runs through all the books of it.

Wyfii Dialect. Sacra.

164. But, the writers of the New Testament being Jews, would, in writing Greek, naturally run into the idioms of their own language, or introduce hebraisms or syriasms; which have, however, been, without reafon, denied by some, and reckoned much more numer. ous than they really are, by others.


E 3

Pfochenü Diatrib. de Linguæ N. T. Puritate.
Fechtii Præf. in Raphel. Michael. ib. 97-10.
Macknight, ib. Marsh's Michael, ch. 4. 5, 6.

165. Such idioms can be illustrated only from the oriental languages, the study of which is thus strongly recommended, as being necessary even for understanding the New Testament; and from the version of the 70, which is written in the same idiom. (No. 251.)

166. There are in the New Testament, some Hebrew and Syriac words.

Michael. ib. ♡ 6. (Heb.) Apan, “ truly, so be it.” Glass. Philol. 1. 3. t. 5.

cap. 16. Heylin. Theolog. Lect. p. 131. Αλληλεια, , « Praise the Lord.” Glass, ib. zilvia, "Tares.” (Svr.) Mauuwwas, “ riches,” Erasm. Druf. Grot. Magav aute. Some, “ The Lord is come ; others,

« la the coming of the Lord;” others, “ Excommunicated in the highest sense, » which was termed innv; others, in general, “ Devoted to destruction." Critici in Cor. xvi. 22. Tremell, Vorstius. Locke.


« for ever,

167. There are likewise Greek words used in * Hebrew or Syriac sense.

Michael. ib.
Avvejis, " A miracle. »
Εις νικος, ,

1 Cor. xv. 541
Capell. Grot. Crell. Macknight.
Prueca, “ A thing. Luke i. 37. ii. 15. A&s v. 32.
Mat. iv. 4. H. R. Essay for a new Translation, p. 2. c. 4.

$ 3, 4
Eywowao, “ Hearken, " AA8 ii. 14,
Grot. Wyfi. Diale&. Sacra.

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