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flowing river. Psal. Ixxiv. 15. “ Thou driedft up mighty waters,the everflowing rivers.

Exod. xiv. 27.

" The sea returned to his strength,” uninterrupted flowing. 2. “ Durable, permanent." Mic. vi. 2. « Hear, ye prong

(durable) foundations of the earth.” 3. Fat, full of moisture."

Job xxxiii. 19.

« Man is chai. tened with pain upon his bed, and the multitude of his bones strong; Eng. “ bones with strong pain ; rather, “multi

tude of his fat bones.4. “ Inexhaustibly rich and prosperous.” Job xii. 19.“ And

overthroweth the mighty ;” but they are spoken of v. 21. here, the opulent.

So Num. xxiv. 21, Jer. xlix. 19.

ch. 1. 44:

Schultens, Orig. Heb. T. 1. c. 8.

209. The Kindred Languages point out roots, by Ihowing such to be in use, which, though found in the Bible, have been overlooked, whose derivatives have therefore been irregularly ascribed to other roots, and whose fignification has been erroneously either transferred to these others, or borrowed from them, or is left flu&uating and uncertain.

Schultens, Orig. Heb. T. 1. C. 4.
385 (Arab.) but overlooked in Hebrew, and confounded

with 393, yet occurs thrice. It fignifies “ to shatter, to
break into pieces, to break with scattering or diffipation ; ”
which suits all these places. Jer. xxiii. 29. “ Is not my
word like a hammer (3359) that (it) breaketh in pieces the
rock?Habak. iii. 6. “ He beheld and drove asunder the
nations; (188071) and the everlasting mountains were
scattered, broken in pieces-a bolder figure. Job xvi.

“ He hath taken me by my neck (W35857) apd hath fbaken (broken) me to pieces.”


country ;


210. These languages ascertain the precise signification of roots, and, consequently, of their derivatives, which are acknowledged in the Bible, and perhaps occur frequently; but, whose fignifications have been fix. ed only by conjecture, and are, on that account, indefinite, precarious, or fluctuating.

Schultens de Defea. Ling. Heb. ib. $ 43, &c.
31D, with which yy) (No. 209) has been confounded, has been

rendered, “ to scatter, disperse, diffipate.” But in Ara.
bic (prim.) “ to pverflow,” (sec.) “to abound, to weep
plentifully." 2 Sam. xvii. 8. " The battle was there
(nida) scatterred over (had overflowed) the face of all the

beautiful figure, from a river. Job xl. 11. 3DT Caft abroad the rage (012the swellings) of thy wrath.” ( Make the swellings of thy wrath to overflow) a beautiful figure. Zech. i. 17. (Eng.) « My cities through prosperity shall yet be spread abroad.Not suitable, for 13x0n is

active. (My cities shall yet overflow with good.) Schultens, ib. T. 1. C. 4. 3) occurs often, is rendered inconftantly; sometimes " to

scatter, to scatter by breaking in pieces,” which are the senses of 318 and XYD. But Arab. Syr. Chald. "to shake, to fhake out by motion;" so sometimes by 70. Aqu. and Theod. rendered Extracow, which suits all the texts. 1 Kings v. 9. “ I will cause them (the trees brought by sea in floats) to be discharged ; " the figure loft-(" fhake them out of the floats ") 70. ExTuvaža. Chald. 9959878 projiciam eas.

Ila. XXX. 30. “ The Lord shall sew the lighting down of bis arm, with the flame of a devouring fire, (309) scattering,(" shaking out ;”) the world by trembling shaken out of its place-(a noble image) “and tempeft, and hailftones.” Geo. ix. 19. “Of them was the whole earth overspread" (1783). “ From them the whole earth shook out its whole offspring ;" ex his excuffit fe universa terra---a beautiful metaphor.


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Judg. vii. 19. 1 Sam. xiii. II. Ifa. xi. 12. xxxiii. 3.

Psal. ii. 9. xxvii. 9. Jer. xiii. 14. xxii. 28. li. 20. cxxxvii. 9.

Schultens, ib.


asa occurs five times in Hiphil. The versions Auctuate.

Arab. (prim.) “ to shine like the rising fun.” (sec.) 1 (in different conjugations) “ To shine in general, to be clear, or serene, oř manifeft, to render clear or serene.”

* To laugh, to be glad, to remove or allay forrow.” Job ix. 27. I will forget my complaint, I will leave off my heaviness, ” napsaxn. 70. « I will figh." Vulg. “ I am wrung with forrow. Syr. Arab. “ I am prefed with Araits.Chald. “ I will be confirmed.'Eng. “ I will comfort myself.Literally, “ I will lay aside my sorrowful face, and I will (prim.) make it to fbine like the fun ;” ot, (sec.) render it serene. ” Job x. 20. 6. Let me alone,” nakan. 70. " that I


take relt.Vulg. bewail

my sorrow.

» Arab. " take breath." Syr. solace myself, and ref." Chald. “ ref. Eng. take comfort.Rather, “ make (my face) to jbine. Psal. xxxix. 13. “O spare me," 723558. 70. and Vulg: " that I may be cocled or refreshed.” Syr. Arab. as in the former text. Chald. " and I will depart.Eng. “that I may recover Prength.Rather, ". make (my face) to

bine ;” or, “to be ferene." Jer. viii. 18. Eng. "(When) I would comfort myself (nuisan) against sorrow, my heart is faint in me.”

* Incurable with the sorrow of your fainting heart.” Vulg. " My forrow is above for

" I am worn away.

Chald. “ Because they Rather, “ Making (deliring) me (sec. 1.) to render my face ferene, " (i. e, Othou who desirest, &c.) « above my sorrow, my heart becomes faint in me ;” or better (sec. 2.) « O thou who laughes at my forrow., . . .

« DiAributing, bruifing upon itrength.” Ag. Vulg. " Mocking devaftation upon the ftrong." Syr. “Giving dominion." Chald.


70. Arab.

row." mocked. "

.o. Arab .המבליג שר על - ען .3



F 2

Eng. “That strengtheneth the spoiled (Grot. Drus. Vat.
" the spoiler, "-wrong) against the strong. " Rather,
(prim.) “ Who maketh devastation to break forth like the
dawn (i. e. suddenly) upon the mighty ;” a beautiful figure,
and used Joel ii. 2.

Isa. xlvii. ii.
Schultens, ib. c. 1. Vindiciae Orig. 9.2.

211. The kindred languages afford the best (and where the ancient versions vary in translating them, the only) means of determining with certainty, the signification of such words as occur but once, or very

seldom, in the Bible.

212. The kindred languages point out the true meaning of some words, whether primitives or derivatives, to which wrong significations have been affixed in the Bible. Isa. xviii. 2. “ Whose lands the rivers 1892 ;

supposed irre. gular for 1972, (which is found in one MS.) Eng. “ have spoiled;" but this irregularity unexampled. (Schult. Gram. p. 491.) Arab. xia, “ to lift itself up, to bring under it." Hence, “ have brought under them,” or “overflowed.But x?a Syr. and #12 Chald. signifies “ a teat ;so that the verb may mean, “ have nourished;” very applicable to the Nile fertilizing Egypt.

Lowth's Isaiah in loc.

213. The kindred languages enable us to discover all the senses of words, some of whose fignifications only have been collected from the Bible, though others of them would better suit particular passages; and, by this means, both explain these passages, and illustrate the connexion between roots and their derivatives.

214. In particular, these languages discover the primary signification of many roots, even such as are most commonly used, whose fecondary fenfes alone have been attended to, though the primary sense would throw light on some texts. 379 very common, rendered “ to be great. But Arab. (prim.) " to twist."

Hence Dibona Deut. xxii. 12. fringes. i Kings vii. 17. “ chain-work, " i. e. twisted threads. (Sec.) 1. “ Sinewy, brawny, compact, elegant,” in the human

make. Exod. xv. 16. “ By the greatness (brawniness, firm

ness) of thine arm, they shall be as still as a stone.” 2. “ To struggle, wrestle, fight.” Job vii. 17. “ What is

man that thou shouldst magnify (struggle) with him ? "-context.

Schultens, Defect. ling. Heb. Ø 202, &c. $78, very common, “ to be just ;” but this only a secondary

sense. Arab. (prim.) “ To be stiff, inflexible ;” also “ to
be inflexibly straight. Hence metaphorically,' “ to be just,
true.” Isa. xlix. 24.“ Shall 1°78 'av (literally) the captives
of the just one be delivered ? ” but the devil is here meant.
Eng. “ the lawful captive;" but this would be unjust. “ The
captives of the inflexible, rigid, or inexorable one."

Schultens, ib. § 217, &c.
Eccles. vii. 16. “ Be not righteous overmuch."-objectionable.

“ Be not too rigid or inflexible.”
Schultens, ib. Hammond, Grotius, Patrick, and others, in


215. The kindred languages are the only, or the most successful, means of leading us to understand the meaning of phrases, or idiomatical combinations of words, which are found in the Bible, and the preF 3


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