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cise meaning of which cannot be determined by it; but which, being agreeable to the genius of the original languages, are preserved in books written in them.

Dan. xii. 7." And when he shall have accomplished 7 xD

(literally) “ to shake the hand,Eng. “ to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished.” But it is a common phrase in Arabic, fignifying " to leave off friendship, society, or intercourse with a person."

The meaning therefore is, “ When he shall have put an end to his leading of friend bip with the holy people, (i. e. the rejection of the Jews, who were his peculiar people), all these things shall be finished.” A prediction of the future restoration of the Jews from their present state of rejection,

Schultens, Orig; Heb. T. 1, c. 4:



Versions of the Scriptures.

216. VERSIONS of the Scriptures into other languages, are subfervient to criticism, either by suggest. ing the readings which the translators followed, or by giving us, in a tongue more intelligible to us, the sense of the original.

Simon, V. T. I. 2. C. I. Walton, Prol. 5. 8. 3.

217. Versions are, either such as are confined to the Old Testament, such as extend to the whole Scripture, or such as are appropriated to a particular book.

218. The versions of the first kind are, the Chaldee paraphrafes, the Greek versions, the Samaritan versions of the Pentateuch, and modern Jewish ver


Simon, ib. c. 1.




Of the Chaldee Paraphrases.

219. The Targums, or Chaldee paraphrases, took their rise from the custom which was introduced after the captivity, when the Jews had forgotten the Hebrew language, of subjoining, to the portions of scripture read in their synagogues, an explication in Chaldaic, which had then become their vernacular tongue.

Simon, ib. c. 1, 17. Walton, Prol. 12. 05. Bret. Diff.

220. For a considerable time, these explications were not probably committed to writing ; then they began to write the ordinary glosses on more difficult texts; and afterwards, by collecting these, and filling them up, they completed targums on whole books ; but at what time is uncertain.

Simon, ib. c. 1, 18. Walton, ib. 7. Bret. ib.

221. The Jews had many of these, all probably collected from scattered or traditional glosses of their doctors; but with very different degrees of judgment.

Walton, Prol. 12. ♡ 8, &c. Bret. ib.

222. There are three Chaldee paraphrafes on the Pentateuch; the first ascribed to Onkclos, the most ancient, and a very literal and exact version ; the fe. cond to Jonathan, more modern and inexact; the

third called the Jerusalem targum, modern, and of little value. Simon, ib. c. 18. Walton, Prol. 5. § 4. Prol. 12. s 8, 9,

11, 13, 14. Brett, ib.

223 On the prophets, both prior and posterior, there is a Chaldee paraphrase ascribed to Jonathan ; ancient, but not very literal, containing many fables, and suiting its explications to the prejudices of the Jews. Simon, ib. c. 18. Walton, Prol. 5. ib. Prol. 12. § 8, 10.

Brett, ib.

224. There are, likewise, Chaldee pataphrases on all the other books of the Old Testament, the authors of shich are unknown, but which appear to be modern and inaccurate; and, besides all these, the Rabbins refer to other targums, which have never been made public.

Simon, ib. Walton, ib. Prol. 12. $ 12, 15. Brett, ib.

225. The Chaldee paraphrases are written, fometimes alternately with the Hebrew, verse by verfe ; sometimes in parallel columns; and sometimes in separate books.

Walton, Prol. 12. Ø 6. Brett, ib.

226. While some have condemned the publication of these paraphrases, as giving countenance to Jewish fables and superstitions ; and others have extolled it as sufficient for the confutation of the Jews from their own confessions ; both have carried the matter too far. But, though the Jews may elude arguments deduced from them, as not absolutely irrefragable; yet, or the other hand, fuch arguments are not wholly destitute of force against them.


Simon, ib. Walton, Prol. 12. $ 11, 16, 18.

227. The printed Chaldee paraphrases agree, in most instances, with the present Hebrew text, which therefore, many conclude, remains now precisely as it was when these paraphrases were written. But this conclu. fion falls to the ground, when it is considered, that the MSS. of the Chaldee paraphrases differ much from one another, and from the printed copies; that these have been often altered, in conformity to the Hebrew; and that the MSS. are very incorrect, and thus demonstrate the carelessness of Jewish transcribers. Polyglot, Lond. V. 6. Simon, ib. c. 18. Ken. Diff. 2. Ç. 2.

Walton, Prol. 12. $ 17.

228. The Chaldee paraphrases, therefore, especially the MSS. of them, still suggest several various readings, and may assist in recovering some true readings; for which purpose, that of Onkelos, by being most literal and accurate, is most useful; the others, only when it appears that they designed to render the very words. Ken. ib. Houbig. Prol. p. 146. Lowth's Isaiah, Prelim.

Dissert. p. 68.

229. The Chaldee paraphrases being written in the fame character with the Hebrew text, will often shew the occasions of false readings in the latter, and the kinds of mistakes to which transcribers were most liable.

Ken. ib.

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