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H. Bryer, Priuter, Bridge-street, Blackfriars, London.

CONTENTS.

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AIKIN'S ENGLAND described

179

Aikin's, Lucy, Memoirs of the Court of Qceeu Elizabeth

105

Asiatic Researches

282

Beaufort's Karamania

546

Bervard's, Mad. Jeunes Vendéens

393

Bigland's Letters on French History

481

Blunt's sirat.ger's Guide to the City of New York

274
• Boyue's D scourse on the Mil'ennium

127
Bullar's Memvirs of the lale Rev. W. Kngsbury

537
Carey's 'Translat on of Dante's Vis on, or HH1, Purgatory, and Paradise

556
Clarke's, Dr. Travels through various countries of Europe, Asia, and Africa
Part III. Scandinaria

509

Coalition and France

177

Colquhoun's Treatise on the Covenant of Grace

483

Coníutation of Calvinian

56

Carwen's State of Ireland

43

Echo of the Study

487

Fearon's Sketches of America

153
Flinders's Voyage to Tina Australis

359
Freeston's Advice to a Young Minister of the Gospel

88
Golownin's Recollections of Japan

244
Gurney's Notes on a Visit to sure Prisons in Scotland, and the North of
Englaod

235
Hewlett's Commen'aries an Aonotations in the Holy Scriptures

345
Horse's Introduction to the Critical Kjowled;e of the Holy Scriptures 21, 182
Inquiry concerning the Ste of ancient Palibothra -

423
King's, Dr. Political and Literary Avecilotes of bis own Times

89
Lacey's Familiar Review of the Lir of David, King of Israel

484
Law's, Dr. Scriptural (doctrine of Man's Salvation

36
Letters vu the Constraiad Celib.scy of the Cleryy of the Churrb of Rome 265
Letters on the Importance, Duty, and Aivarent's of Ear y Rising

356
Letters to the Right Hun. Rusere Prel, Esq. M.P. ou the pernic ous Efects of
a Variable Standard of Valle

405

List of Works recently published

103. 199. 299 491.506.6:0

Merlet's Traducteur

572

Milford's Observations, Moral, Politi.al and Antiquarian, made in a Tour

through the South of France

378

Moens's Choix de Lecture pour les jeunes Gens

393

Moniagu's.luquiries.respecting the Punishment of Death for Crimes without

Violence

1

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PAGL

Narrative of the Mission to Otaheite, and other Islands in the South Seas 169

Nautical Essays

482

Paddock's Narrative of the Shipwreck of the Oswego

64

Park's Nugæ Modernæ

84

Pegge's Curialia Miscellanea, or, Anecdotes of Old Tiines

275

Peter Bell; a Lyrical Ballad

473

Picturesque Tour through France, Switzerland, &c.

378

Panishment of Death in the case of Forgery; its lojustice maintained
Raffles's Letters during a Tour through France, &c.

171
Reformation of the Catholic Church in Germany, and the Downfall of Papal
Authority

462

Reply to the Author of a Letter to the Right Hon. Robert Peel, Esq. M. P. 405

Rhodes's Peak Scenery

Riley's Lo-s of the American Brig Commerce

Roberts's Manual of Prophery

Roby's Lectures on the Principal Evidences of Revealed Religion
Rogers's Human Life, a Poem

218
Select Literary Information

100, 196, 296, 399, 504, 609
Sermons by the late Rev. Charles Wesley

150
Small's Serinons to Young People

259
Speech of the Marquis of Lansdowne, June 3, i818

1
Spence's Letters from the North Highlands

479
Staël's, Mad. la Baronne de, Considerations sur les Principaux Evénemens
de la Revolution Françoise

201, 316, 488
Tarver's Dictionnaire des Verbes François

579
Taylor's Anoals of Health and long Life

87
Mrs. and Miss, Correspondence between a Mother and her Daughter

at School

394

Mrs. Reciprocal Duties of Parents and Children

394

Thomson's Discourses on the Young warned against the Enticements of
Sinners

259

Thornton's Sermons on the most important Doctrines of the Gospel

376

Thurtle's History of France

481

Transactions of the Literary Society of Bombay

423

Two Papers; a Theatrical Critique, and an Essay on Sonnet Writing, &c. 473

Warner's, Rebecca, Epistolary Curiosities

572

Original Letters from Richard Baxter Prior

ib.

Wilson's, Daniel, Sermons

226

Wix's Reflections on the Expediency of a Counsel of the Church of Eng.

land and the Church of Rome being holden, to accommodate religious

differences

301, 440, 581

Wright's Philosophy of Elocution

389

Yeates's Indian Church History

250

THE

ECLECTIC REVIEW,

FOR JANUARY, 1819.

Art. I. 1. Speech of the Marquis of Lansdowne in the House of Lords,

June 3, 1818, on moving for certain Information relative to the State of the Prisons in the United Kingdom. Published by the Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline, and for the

Reformation of Juvenile Offenders. 8vo. pp. 16. price 6d. 1818. 2. Some Inquiries respecting the Punishment of Death for Crimes

without Violence. By Basil Montagu, Esq. 8vo. pp. 120. London,

1818. 3. The Punishment of Death in the Case of Forgery ; its Injustice and

Impolicy maintained. 8vo. pp. 32. price ls. 1818.
IF
F there be any truth in the omen which Lord Bacon deemed

the only infallible source of political prophecy, the predominent opinions of men in general between twenty and thirty, no event may with more confidence be predicted, than some speedy legislative reformation of our penal code. Such a measure has long appeared highly desirable, not simply on the ground of bumanity, but because the multiplicity of capital punishments bas of itself necessitated a partial repeal of the sanctions of our criminal law, introducing by this means an uncertainty into the administration of justice, which defeats the very intention of the legislature. The alarming increase of offences has tended to strengthen this opinion, and to awaken at the same time a suspicion as to the efficacy of penal severities in deterring from the commission of crime. * Imperfect,' remarked Dr. Colquhoun, in a work published nearly twenty years ago, must be either 'the plan, or the execution, or both, of our criminal code, if crimes are found to increase.' Crimes have increased, and those crimes especially have increased, upon which the laws denounce the punishment of death. At the same time, it has been found impracticable to push further the system of severity. The relaxation of the laws bas accordingly almost kept pace with the multiplication of offences. Punishment has become Vol. XI. N. S.

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more uncertain, in proportion as the laws bave grown more severe, or as the field for the application of their severity has extended. The example made of the sufferer is, under these circumstances, deprived of its beneficial influence, inasmuch as the crime which is the ground of his sentence, is not the real cuuse of bis suffering that sentence. Those selected for execution, at the discretion of the judge, endure the penalty, not because they are condemned to die, but because they are excluded from the general respite. The magistracy has, in fact, been thie great innovator: in this extensive exercise of its discretional powers, it has anticipated those changes to which it has now become the business of the legislature to give permanence. It is the judges of our criminal courts wbo are chargeable with beginning the desired reform; they have made the rule the exception, and the exception has become the rule.* Nor does there exist any disapprobation of this systematic lenity. Among all the expedients devised for checking the progress of delinquency, no individual has been found hardy enough to propose the remedying of the discrepancy between the law and the practice, by making the punishment of death even generally consequent upon the sentence. But still, this discrepancy is felt to be an evil; and if the practice cannot be brought nearer to the standard of the law, it is natural to inquire whether the law might not without danger be reconciled with the practice. A very high judicial authority (Sir W. Grant) has argued, that as they cannot both be right, the question is,

which is wrong, and where the remedy is to be applied.' Now I think,' added that learned and highly respected individual, on the occasion alluded to, the pructice is right.' The public at large seem now prepared very generally to second this decision. The conduct of a recent London Jury, though attributable, in great measure, to dissatisfaction with the nature of the evidence before them, has spoken pretty loudly the prevailing reluctance to place the life of an offender at the discretion of a judge. In fact, the question is now before the country, and it becomes the indispensable duty of the great

* Sir Samuel Romilly stated before the House of Commons, that out of 1872 committed to Newgate within the seven years preceding 1810, charged with the capital offence of stealing in dwelling houses and shop-lifting, only one was executed. Again : it was stated on the 25th March, 1818, that during the preceding twelve years, 655 persons had been indicted for privately stealing, of which number 113 had been capitally convicted, and of those 113 not one had been executed ; 365 of the 655 had been found guilty of simple larceny only; that is to say, 365 persons had either been improperly charged with a capital offence, or were acquitted of the capital part of the charge, by the juries, in violation of their oaths.

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