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Present tasks can only be clearly seen and worthily performed in the light of long experience; and that liberal acquaintance with History which, under a monarchical government, might safely be left as an ornament and privilege to the few, is here the duty of the
The present work aims merely to afford a brief though accurate outline of the results of the labors of NIEBUHR, BUNSEN, Arnold, MOMMSEN, RAWLINSON, and others results which have never, so far as we know, been embraced in any American school-book, but which within a few years have greatly increased the treasures of historical literature. While it may have been impossible, within our limits, to reproduce the full and life-like outlines in which they have portrayed the characters of ancient times, we have sought, with their aid, at least to ascertain the limits of fact and fable. With but few exceptions, and those clearly stated as such, we have introduced no narrative which can reasonably be doubted.
The writer is more confident of justice of aim than of completeness of attainment. No one can so acutely feel the imperfections of a work like this, as the one who has labored at every point to avoid or to remove them; to compress the greatest amount of truth into the fewest words, and while reducing the scale, to preserve a just proportion in the details. To hundreds of former pupils, who have never been forgotten in this labor of love, and to the kind judgment of fellow-teachers-some of whom well know that effort has not been spared, even where ability may have failed-this Manual is respectfully submitted.
BROOKLYN, N. Y., April, 1872.
Sources of History.
Dispersion of Races; Periods and Divisions of History.
PART I.-THE ASIATIC NATIONS.
Grecian Siates and Colonies, from their Earliest Period to the Accession of Alexander
Traditional and Fabulous History, from the Earliest Times to the Dorian
From the Beginning of the Persian Wars to the Macedonian Supremacy.
Invasions by Mardonius and Datis.
Invasion by Xerxes; Battle of Thermopyla.
Battle of Salamis, and Retreat of Xerxes.
Theban Invasions of the Peloponnesus.
Battle of Chæronea. Supremacy of Philip of Macedon.
History of the Macedonian Empire, and the Kingdoms formed from it, until their
Syrian Kingdom of the Seleucida.
History of Rome, from the Earliest Times to the Fall of the Western Empire.
Second Punic War, and Invasion of Italy by Hannibal.
Battles of the Trebia, Lake Thrasymene, Cannæ.
Wars with Antiochus the Great; with Spain, Liguria, Corsica, Sardinia,
FOURTH PERIOD. Internal Commotions and Civil Wars.
Reforms Proposed by the Gracchi..
Jugurthine Wars, and Rise of Marius.
Defeat of the Teutones and Cimbri.
Exile and Seventh Consulship of Marius.
Extraordinary Power of Pompey.
Triumvirate of Pompey, Cæsar, and Crassus.
Conquests of Cæsar in Gaul, Britain, and Germany.
Civil War; Pompey defeated at Pharsalia..
Cæsar Victor at Thapsus, and Master of Rome.
Murder of Cæsar in the Senate-house.
Triumvirate of Antony, Cæsar Octavianus, and Lepidus.
Reigns of Augustus, 326; Tiberius, 328; Caligula, Claudius, 330; Nero, 331;
Galba, Otho, Vitellius, 333; Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, 334; Nerva,
Trajan, 335; Hadrian, T. Antoninus Pius, M. Aurelius Antoninus, 336;
Reigns of Pertinax, Didius Julianus, 338; Severus, Caracalla, Macrinus,
Elagabalus, 339; Alexander Severus, 340; Maximin, the Gordians,
Pupienus and Balbinus, Gordian the Younger, Philip, Decius, 341;
Gallus, Emilian, Valerian, Gallienus and the "Thirty Tyrants," 342;
Aurelian, Tacitus, Florian, 343; Probus, Carus, Numerian, Carinus, 344.
Reigns of Diocletian and Maximian with two Cæsars, 345; of Constantine,
Maximian, and Maxentius in the West- Galerius, Maximin, and
Licinius in the East, 348; of Constantine alone, and the Reörganiza-
tion of the Empire, 349; of Constantine II., Constans, and Constan-
tius II., 350; of Julian, Jovian, and Valentinian I., 352; of Valens, 353;
Final Separation of the Eastern and Western Empires.
Reigns, in the West, of Honorius, 356; of Valentinian III., 358; of Maximus,
359; of Avitus, Marjorian, Libius Severus, Anthemius, Olybrius, Glyce-