The Braconid and Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps: Biology, Systematics, Evolution and Ecology
John Wiley & Sons, 22 déc. 2014 - 688 pages
The Ichneumonoidea is a vast and important superfamily ofparasitic wasps, with some 60,000 described species and estimatednumbers far higher, especially for small-bodied tropical taxa. Thesuperfamily comprises two cosmopolitan families - Braconidae andIchneumonidae - that have largely attracted separate groups ofresearchers, and this, to a considerable extent, has meant thatunderstanding of their adaptive features has often been consideredin isolation. This book considers both families, highlightingsimilarities and differences in their adaptations.
The classification of the whole of the Ichneumonoidea, alongwith most other insect orders, has been plagued by typology wherebyundue importance has been attributed to particular characters indefining groups. Typology is a common disease of traditionaltaxonomy such that, until recently, quite a lot of taxa have beenassociated with the wrong higher clades. The sheer size of thegroup, and until the last 30 or so years, lack of accessibleidentification materials, has been a further impediment to researchon all but a handful of ‘lab rat’ species usuallycultured initially because of their potential in biologicalcontrol.
New evidence, largely in the form of molecular data, have shownthat many morphological, behavioural, physiological and anatomicalcharacters associated with basic life history features,specifically whether wasps are ecto- or endoparasitic, or idiobiontor koinobiont, can be grossly misleading in terms of the phylogenythey suggest. This book shows how, with better supportedphylogenetic hypotheses entomologists can understand far more aboutthe ways natural selection is acting upon them.
This book covers the same areas as Parasitic Wasps(Springer, 1997) (behaviour, physiology, development, anatomy,venoms, sex, ecology and evolution), but they have been brought upto date in this book (much new data has become available over theintervening years). This new book also focuses on this superfamilywith which the author has great familiarity and provides a detailedcoverage of each subfamily, emphasising anatomy, taxonomy andsystematics, biology, as well as pointing out the importance andresearch potential of each group.
Brief TOC: Chapter 1 Introduction; Chapter 2 Adultexternal morphology; Chapter 3 The ovipoistor and ovipositorsheaths; Chapter 4 Internal and reproductive anatomy; Chapter5 Immature stages; Chapter 6 Idiobionts, koinobiontsand other life history traits; Chapter 7 Sex, courtship andmating; Chapter 8 Host location, assessment and associativelearning; Chapter 9 Overcoming host immune reaction andphysiological interactions with hosts; Chapter 10 Convergentadaptations; Chapter 11 Overview of Ichneumonoidea:relationships and systematics; Chapter 12 Phylogeny andsystematics of the Braconidae; Chapter 13 Phylogeny andsystematics of the Ichneumonidae; Chapter 14 Ecology; Chapter15 Local and global patterns in diversity; Chapter 16 Collecting and rearing Ichneumonoidea; Chapter 17 Epilogue.
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Life history 5
Antennal glands and tyloids 14
Confusing and sometimes erroneously applied vein
Male external genitalia 32
The act of oviposition 39
Proposed evolutionary and related ovipositor
INTERNAL AND REPRODUCTIVE
Venom gland and reservoir
Larval feeding and nutrition