The Braconid and Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps: Biology, Systematics, Evolution and Ecology
John Wiley & Sons, 22 déc. 2014 - 688 pages
The Ichneumonoidea is a vast and important superfamily of parasitic wasps, with some 60,000 described species and estimated numbers far higher, especially for small-bodied tropical taxa. The superfamily comprises two cosmopolitan families - Braconidae and Ichneumonidae - that have largely attracted separate groups of researchers, and this, to a considerable extent, has meant that understanding of their adaptive features has often been considered in isolation. This book considers both families, highlighting similarities and differences in their adaptations.
The classification of the whole of the Ichneumonoidea, along with most other insect orders, has been plagued by typology whereby undue importance has been attributed to particular characters in defining groups. Typology is a common disease of traditional taxonomy such that, until recently, quite a lot of taxa have been associated with the wrong higher clades. The sheer size of the group, and until the last 30 or so years, lack of accessible identification materials, has been a further impediment to research on all but a handful of ‘lab rat’ species usually cultured initially because of their potential in biological control.
New evidence, largely in the form of molecular data, have shown that many morphological, behavioural, physiological and anatomical characters associated with basic life history features, specifically whether wasps are ecto- or endoparasitic, or idiobiont or koinobiont, can be grossly misleading in terms of the phylogeny they suggest. This book shows how, with better supported phylogenetic hypotheses entomologists can understand far more about the ways natural selection is acting upon them.
This book covers the same areas as Parasitic Wasps (Springer, 1997) (behaviour, physiology, development, anatomy, venoms, sex, ecology and evolution), but they have been brought up to date in this book (much new data has become available over the intervening years). This new book also focuses on this superfamily with which the author has great familiarity and provides a detailed coverage of each subfamily, emphasising anatomy, taxonomy and systematics, biology, as well as pointing out the importance and research potential of each group.
Brief TOC: Chapter 1 Introduction; Chapter 2 Adult external morphology; Chapter 3 The ovipoistor and ovipositor sheaths; Chapter 4 Internal and reproductive anatomy; Chapter 5 Immature stages; Chapter 6 Idiobionts, koinobionts and other life history traits; Chapter 7 Sex, courtship and mating; Chapter 8 Host location, assessment and associative learning; Chapter 9 Overcoming host immune reaction and physiological interactions with hosts; Chapter 10 Convergent adaptations; Chapter 11 Overview of Ichneumonoidea: relationships and systematics; Chapter 12 Phylogeny and systematics of the Braconidae; Chapter 13 Phylogeny and systematics of the Ichneumonidae; Chapter 14 Ecology; Chapter 15 Local and global patterns in diversity; Chapter 16 Collecting and rearing Ichneumonoidea; Chapter 17 Epilogue.
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Life history 5
Antennal glands and tyloids 14
Confusing and sometimes erroneously applied vein
Male external genitalia 32
The act of oviposition 39
Proposed evolutionary and related ovipositor
INTERNAL AND REPRODUCTIVE
Venom gland and reservoir
Larval feeding and nutrition