Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation

Couverture
Anthony Larkum, Robert J. Orth, Carlos Duarte
Springer Science & Business Media, 22 févr. 2007 - 676 pages

Seagrasses are unique plants; the only group of flowering plants to recolonise the sea. They occur on every continental margin, except Antarctica, and form ecosystems which have important roles in fisheries, fish nursery grounds, prawn fisheries, habitat diversity and sediment stabilisation. Over the last two decades there has been an explosion of research and information on all aspects of seagrass biology. However the compilation of all this work into one book has not been attempted previously. In this book experts in 26 areas of seagrass biology present their work in chapters which are state-of–the-art and designed to be useful to students and researchers alike. The book not only focuses on what has been discovered but what exciting areas are left to discover. The book is divided into sections on taxonomy, anatomy, reproduction, ecology, physiology, fisheries, management, conservation and landscape ecology. It is destined to become the chosen text on seagrasses for any marine biology course.

 

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Table des matières

Ecological and Reproductive Processes
35
Concluding Remarks
44
Seagrass Morphology Anatomy and Ultrastructure 5187
51
Pollination
89
Pollen
96
Pollen Tubes Embryonic and Seedling Development
102
Ecology of Seagrass Seeds and Dispersal Strategies 111133
111
Seed Recruitment and Seedling Establishment
122
Use of Spaceborne and Airborne Sensors 347359
347
Principles of Remote Sensing of Seagrass Ecosystems
350
Optical Properties of the Overlying Water Column
351
Physical Definitions
353
Methodological Approaches to Assessing Seagrass Ecosystem Characteristics from Remote Sensing
355
Conclusions Recommendations and Outlook
357
References
358
Biology Ecology and Management 361386
361

Acknowledgments
128
Seagrass Beds and Coastal Biogeochemistry 135157
135
Mineralization of Organic Matter and Nutrient Cycling
145
Summary and Future WorkOutlook
151
Carbon Flux in Seagrass Ecosystems 159192
159
Ecosystem Carbon Budgets and Carbon Sinks
179
Summary and Future Work
185
Fluid Dynamics in Seagrass Ecologyfrom Molecules
193
Processes at the Shoot Level mmcm
200
HydrodynamicallyMediated Processes at the Landscape Level
212
Summary and Outlook
218
Nutrients Dynamics in Seagrass Ecosystems 227254
227
Nutrient Fluxes in Seagrass Ecosystems
235
Nutrient Limitation and Nutrient Imbalances
243
Oxygen Movement in Seagrasses 255270
255
Internal Movement of Oxygen
263
Dynamics of Seagrass Stability and Change 271294
271
from Apical Meristems to Meadows
272
Shoot Dynamics
275
Clones and Patch Dynamics
281
Gap Dynamics
283
Dynamics of Seagrass Meadows at Different Time Scales
284
Forecasting Seagrass Dynamics
290
Basic Concepts for Understanding How Light Affects Seagrasses and Makes them Measurable from Space 295301
295
Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters
300
References
301
Light and Photosynthesis in Seagrass Meadows 303321
303
Radiation Transfer and Light Interception
304
Leaf Optical Properties
307
Radiative Transfer and Submerged Plant Canopies
309
Irradiance Distributions Within the Seagrass Canopy
311
Productivity and Carbon Balance in Submerged Plant Canopies
312
Leaf Orientation Canopy Density and SelfShading
313
Effects of Water Quality on Seagrass Productivity and Distribution
315
Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Seagrass Productivity
316
Acknowledgment
319
Photosynthesis and Metabolism in Seagrasses at the Cellular Level 323345
323
Photosynthetic Adaptations to Marine Submergence
324
Inorganic Carbon Uptake Mechanisms
325
Rates of Ci Uptake
326
Photosynthetic Efficiency LightHarvesting and the Package Effect
328
Fixation CAM Photorespiration and Oxygen Cycles
329
Fluorescence Studies
330
Leaf Anatomy Oxygen Effects and Depth Limitations in Seagrasses
337
Initial Photosynthetic Products in Seagrass Leaves
338
Storage and Utilisation
339
Secondary Metabolites and Chemotaxonomy
340
Summary
341
Acknowledgements
342
Ecology
370
Management and Restoration
372
Future Research Needs
378
Biology of Posidonia 387408
387
Systematics
388
Development of Meadows and Patches
391
Paradigms and Recent Advances
409
Plant Development
416
Population Dynamics
422
Conclusions
430
Epiphytes of Seagrasses 441461
441
Factors Affecting Distribution and Abundance
450
Conclusions
456
The Central Role of Grazing in Seagrass Ecology 463501
463
A Delicate Balance
481
Alternate Stable States in Seagrass Ecosystems?
488
Seagrasses Fish and Fisheries 503536
503
Comparison of Abundance Diversity Growth and Survival of Fish in Seagrass Habitats with Other Nearshore Habitats
505
Spatial ScalesFactors Influencing Abundance of Fish
506
in Seagrass Beds
509
Temporal Scales Factors Influencing Abundance of Fish in Seagrass Beds
516
Links Between Seagrass and Fisheries
517
Conservation and Management Issues
524
Future Research Directions
527
Acknowledgments
530
Predation in Seagrass Beds 537550
537
Effects of Seagrass on PredatorPrey Interactions in Evolutionary Time
545
Summary
546
References
547
Decline and Recovery of Seagrass EcosystemsThe Dynamics of Change 551565
551
Loss of Seagrass Beds
552
Why did We Lose Seagrasses in Cockburn Sound Whereas Seagrass Area has Expanded on Neighbouring Parmelia and Success Banks?
556
Florida Bay
560
Can Seagrass Management be Proactive?
562
Eutrophication Sedimentation and Contamination 567593
567
Anthropogenic Stressors
568
Management of Anthropogenic Pollutants
584
Recommended Research Directions
586
Summary
587
An Interdisciplinary Science
595
The State of Seagrass Science Relative
604
ScienceBased Protection Approaches
610
Summary and Outlook
617
New Contributions
625
Terrestrial vs Marine Landscapes
635
Summary
641
Epilogue
647
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À propos de l'auteur (2007)

Anthony Larkum is Emeritus Professor and Deputy Director of the Centre for Biological Informatics and Technology at the University of Sudney, Australia. Over the past 45 years his research has centred on photosynthesis and marine biology, especially of algae and seagrasses. He is the author of six books, including "Seagrass Biology: An Australasian Perspective" (Elsevier 1989) and "Photosynthesis of Algae" (Kluwer, 2003) and has published over 170 research papers. He is the recipient of many international awards and is on the editorial board of Trends in Plant Science

Robert J. Orth is a Professor of Marine Science in the School of Marine Science and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William Mary, Gloucester Pt., Virginia. His research over the past 35 years has addressed aspects of faunal interactions within seagrass meadows, seed ecology, restoration, and factors influencing the distribution and abundance of meadows in Chesapeake Bay. His work has been closely tied to seagrass management in this region. He has published more than 100 research papers, and co-authored several special issues of scientific journals dealing with seagrasses and one book (Changes in Fluxes in Estuaries). He is past president of the Estuarine Research Federation.

Carlos M. Duarte is a research professor with the Spanish Council for Scientific Research at IMEDEA (Esporles, Majorca, Spain). His research addresses all aspects of seagrass biology and ecology, emphasising seagrass demography, colonisation and recovery processes and their role in the ecosystem. He has authored more than 250 papers in international journals and an introductory book on Seagrass Ecology, is co-editor in chief of the journal "Estuaries and Coasts" and has received several international awards.

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