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Position of Adjectives. Rule 28.-Qualificative adjectives are generally placed before the noun which they qualify, when they express habitual qualities, generally moral qualities, thoroughly pervading the nature of the noun.

EXAMPLES.
a good book,
an old friend,

a dear sister,
un bon livre.
un vieil ami.

une chère soeur. Rule 29.- Qualificative adjectives are generally placed after the noun which they qualify, when they express occasional or accidental qualities, such as those of nationality, religion, shape, taste, colour, &c. The past participle of verbs, when used as an adjective, is always placed after the noun which it qualifies.

EXAMPLES. an English lady, some blue eyes,

the beloved children, une dame anglaise. des yeux bleus. les enfants chéris.

Rule 30.-Adjectives which do not fall distinctly within the scope of either Rule 28 or Rule 29, may be placed either before or after the noun which they qualify, as the ear may direct.

EXAMPLES. a frightful accident,

an absurd question, un accident épouvantable;

une question absurde; or, un épouvantable accident.

une absurde question. Rule 31.-Rules 28, 29, and 30 do not apply to a certain puniber of adjectives which have a different meaning according to their position before or after the noun.

EXAMPLES. a good man (familiar),

a kind man, un bon homme.

un homme bon. the last Monday,

last Monday, le dernier lundi.

lundi dernier. a downright rascal,

a frank reply, un franc coquin.

une réponse franche. a great man,

a tall man, un grand homme.

un homme grand. an honest man,

a civil man, un honnête homme.

un homme honnête, &c. Rule 32.—When a noun employed in a partitive sense is preceded by an adjective, the partitive article du, de la, de l', des (some or any), whether expressed or understood in English, is replaced by de alone, or d' before a vowel or h mute.

EXAMPLES. some good books, some great men,

some horrible crimes, de bons livres. de grands hommes. d'horribles crimes.

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l'arche, f. la colonne, le piédestal, le fût, le chapiteau, l'entablement, la plinthe, la frise, la corniche, le balustre, la balustrade, le faite,

VOCABULARY.-Architecture.
arch.

le toit,
column.

le dôme, pedestal

la coupole, shaft.

la galerie, ca pital.

le couloir, entablature.

le pilier, plinth.

les degrés, frieze.

le péristyle, cornice.

la porte, baluster.

la fenêtre, balustrade.

la flèche, pinnacle.

la tour.

roof. dome. cupola. gallery. passage. pillar. steps. peristyle. door. vrindor. spire. tower.

Progressive Reading and Translation

(The English is at page 201.) Les mesures exterminatrices du gouvernement de la république.-L'harmonie sauvage de la chanson bretonne.-Les phrases ambiguës du discours de l'orateur.- La manne quotidienne des Juifs dans le désert.-Les batailles navales de la flotte anglaise.—La stupide expression de la physionomie de l'Africain. Les hommes sont égaux, mais les fortunes sont inégales. — Un cher et véritable ami est un grand bien.— La flèche élancée de la cathédrale de Strasbourg. -Les tours massives de Notre-Dame de Paris.—Le chapiteau corinthien est composé de feuilles d'acanthe. -Les degrés du temple de Jupiter olympien. Les fausses maneuvres du général de l'armée grecque.—Une ambition effrénée et l'hostilité impitoyable des souverains de l'Europe, ont été la cause des malheurs inouïs et de la chute du grand Napoléon.

Progressive Exercise 9. The workman has good tools.—The thick foliage of the old ouvrier

épais feuillage m. tree.— The son of the farmer is a fine little fellow.-The sweet arbre m. fils fermier beau

gaillard smell of the rose. - The flattering

reward.—The pears are

flatieur Rule 22, 2dly récompense f. poire f. ripe, but the apples are better. Happy children, you mais

pomme f. meilleur Rule 22, 1stly heureux shall have a quantity of toys.

A decisive and important

joujou Rule 4 question.—The ancient columns of the forum.-A secret gallery

Rule 32

outil m.

Rule 23

Rule 16

odeur f.

f.

múr

é f.

2

3

f. 1

ancien

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- m.

Rule 18

under the peristyle of the Grecian temple.—The_thick lips of

Rule 24, lèvres f. the negro.—The first lesson of the grammar. -A large quantity nègre premier leçon f.

SOUS

- m.

grammaire f. of violet silk.

é f.

Rules 18 and 29 soie f.

DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES. DEFINITIONS.—THE DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES, four in pumber, determine nouns by adding to their meaning, 1stly, A notion of possession; 2dly, A notion of pointed distinction; 3dly, A vague and indefinite notion; 4thly, A notion of number or order. They are named:

1stly, POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES.
2dly, DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.
3dly, INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES.
4thly, NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.

.

ses.

nos.
vos.

ma seur.

her pen,

Possessive Adjectives. Rule 33.-- POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES in French agree in number and gender with the noun to which they are prefixed, and not, as in English, with the noun or pronoun representing the possessor. They are declined thus:

Before
Before

Before a masc. sing. noun. a fem. sing. noun. all plural nouns. my,

mon,
ma,

mes. thy,

ton,
ta,

tes. his, her, its, one's,

son,

sa, our,

notre,

notre, your,

votre,

votre, their,

leur,
leur,

leurs.
EXAMPLES.
my brother,
my sister,

my cousins,
mon frère.

mes cousins.
her pencil,

her copybooks,
son crayon.
sa plume.

ses cahiers.
one's coat,
one's box,

one's books,
son habit.
sa boîte.

ses livres.
his dog,

his birds,
son chien.
sa jument.

ses oiseaux.
their horse,
their carriage,

their houses,
leur cheval.
leur voiture.

leurs maisons. Rule 34.—Mon, ton, son are used instead of ma, ta, sa, before feminine words beginning with a vowel or h mute.

EXAMPLES. my education, mon éducation f. I his astonishingvirtue, son étonnante vertu.

Rule 35.-Possessive Adjectives are repeated before every noun in enumerations.

EXAMPLES.
his furniture, houses, landed property, cattle, &c.,

ses meubles, ses maisons, ses propriétés, ses tiaux.
our copybook and pen,

his pen and ink, notre cahier et notre plume.

sa plume et son encre.

his mare,

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VOCABULARY.-Dressing Articles. f. brosse à ongles, nail-brush.

m. tire-bottes, boot-jack. f. brosse à dents, tooth-brush.

f. cuvette, washhand-basin. 1. brosse à tête, hair-brush.

m. pot-à-l'eau, water-jug. f. brosse à habits, clothes-brush,

f. épingle, pin. f. poudre à dents, tooth powder. f. baignoire, bath (the vessel). f. épingle à cheveux, hair-pin.

m. bain,

bath (the contents). m. savon, 80ap.

f. éponge, sponge. f. pommade, pomatum.

m.p. ciseaux, scissors. m. miroir,

looking-glass. m. essuie-mains, towel. m. rasoir,

m. passe-lacet, bodkin. f. corne,

shoe horn.

m. peigne, comb.

razor.

Progressive Reading and Translation 10.

(The English is at page 202.) Les visites de nos chers parents.—Je serai fâché de sa lougue absence.—Tu seras triste de mon départ, mon aimable cousine.La mauvaise prononciation de nos jeunes élèves.- La profonde indifférence de son fils aîné pour l'étude.-Je serai content de leurs bons thèmes et de leurs bonnes versions. Ils seront à leur mariage.-Votre seur a été son amie et sa compagne.—Les vieux domestiques de ma chère mère.—Tu auras ton beau morceau de musique, ma chère enfant.--Tu as ses rasoirs et sa corne.—Mon éponge et mon savon sont au fond de ma baignoire.—Ernestine a son grand passe-lacet et mes ciseaux.- Vous avez de l'eau dans votre pot-à-l'eau.--Sa poudre à dents est blanche, la poudre à dents de Robert est noire.-Leurs rasoirs sont bons et fins.--Sa baiguoire est en zinc.—Le commis de mon associé a de mauvaise pommade.-Adieu, mon garçon; au revoir.

Progressive Exercise 10. N.B.-In French there is no form similar to the possessive case in English. my father's house, (read) the house of my father.

la maison de mon père. My large looking-glass and his razors will be on my

grand chest of drawers.--Your short exercise and the translation of

petit his friend. — They will be pleased with their lessons. Her

leçon f. brother will be their enemy.-His house and their gardens are

jardin m. magnificent.--Her pins, scissors, comb, and sponge are in my magnifique m.p. dressing - room. — My father's house is on the top of a hill.– cabinet de toilette m. Their oth and sisters will be very sad.--Her water-jug Rule 35

très triste m.p. is in our small room.

dans petit chambre f.

EXAMPLE

sur

commode f.

thème m.

traduction f.

content

de

ennemi m.

maison f.

Rule 35

dans

Sur

sommet m.

colline f.

ce, cet,

ces.

this man,

Demonstrative Adjectives. Rule 36.-DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES agree in number and gender with the nouns to which they are prefixed; they are declined thus:

Before
Before

Before a masc. sing. noun. a fem. sing. noun. all plural nouns. sing. this or that,

cette, plur. these or those, S

The second form cet of the masculine is used before words masculine singular beginning with a vowel or h mute.

EXAMPLES. this little boy, this little girl,

those little children, ce petit garçon.

cette petite fille. ces petits enfants.
this woman,

these young ladies, cet homme. cette femme,

ces demoiselles. Rule 37.ci or may be placed after nouns preceded by ce, cet, cette, ces, for the sake of emphasis or distinction, between nouns pointed at in an equal degree.

When ci and are used for the sake of distinction, ci refers to the nearest object or person, and là to the remotest.

ci and are linked to the nouns after which they are placed by a hyphen.

the binding of this ugly book,
la reliure de ce vilain livre-ci.
the slate pencil of that bad boy,
le crayon d'ardoise de ce méchant garçon-là.
from this house here to that house over there,
de cette maison-ci à cette maison-là.
this young gentleman and that young lady,

ce jeune homme-ci et cette demoiselle-là. N.B.-ci and cannot be placed after a noun followed by a qualificative adjective.

EXAMPLES.
this green book and that brown book,

ce livre vert et ce livre brun. DO NOT SAY: ce livre vert-ci et ce livre brun-là. In such cases distinction is sufficiently marked by the qualificative adjectives; but should the noun livre be understood, You might say, this green one and that brown one,

ce vert-ci et ce brun-là.
Or again, this green book and that brown one,

ce livre vert et ce brun-là.

EXAMPLES.

SAY: .

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