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tinere, an frequentiæ scholarum, et velut publicis præceptoribus tradere? * they soon determined it as he did, that set-schools are so necessary, there is no doing without them. Wherefore a COLLEDGE must now be thought upon: a Colledge, the best thing that ever New England thought upon! As the admirable Voctius could happily boast of it, that whereas there are no less than ten provinces in the Popish Belgium, and there are no more than two Universities in them, there are but seven provinces in the reformed Belgium, and there are five Universities therein, besides other academical societies; thus the first Possessors of this protestant and puritan country were zealous for an University, that should be more significant than the Seminaries of Canada and Mexico; New-England, compared with other places, might lay claim to the character that Strabo gives of Tarsus, the city of our apostle Paul's first education; "they had so great a love to Philosophy,” (cosahan Crón após se pshooopiav,] and all the liberal sciences, that they excelled Athens, Alexandria, and if there were any other place worth naming where the schools, and disputes of philosophy, and all humane arts are maintained.” And although this country did chiefly consist of such as, by the difficulties of subduing a wretched wilderness, were brought into such a condition of poverty, that they might have gone by the title by which the modestly-clad noblemen and gentlemen that first petitioned against the Inquisition in the low countries were distinguished, namely, "a troop of beggars," yet these Gueux were willing to let the richer colonies, which retained the ways of the Church of England, see “how much true religion was a friend unto good literature. The reader knows that in every town among the Jews, there was a school, whereat children were taught the reading of the law; and if there were any town destitute of a school, the men of the place did stand excommunicate until one were erected: besides and beyond which, they had midrashoth, or divinity-schools, in which they expounded the law to their disciples. Whether the churches of NewEngland have been duely careful or no, about their other schools, they have not been altogether careless about their midrashoth; and it is well for them that they have not.

Should be $636 $ 2. A General Court, held at Boston, September 8, 1630, advanced a sinall sum (and it was then a day of small things), namely, four hundred pounds, by way of essay towards the building of something to begin a Colledge; and New-Town being the Kiriath Sephert appointed for the seat of it, the name of the town was for the sake of somewhat now founding here, which might hereafter grow into an University, changed into Cambridge. 'Tis true, the University of Upsal in Sueden hath ordinarily about seven or eight hundred students belonging to it, which do none of them live collegiately, but board all of them here and there at private houses; nevertheless, the government of New-England was for having their students

• Whether it is more expedient to shut up the student at home and in his own closet, or to send him to tho crowded school and to public teachers,

+ City of Books.

brought up in a more collegiate way of living. But that which laid the most significant stone in the foundation, was the last will of Mr. John HARVARD, a reverend and excellent minister of the gospel, who, dying at Charlestown of a consumption, quickly after his arrival here, bequeathed the sum of seven hundred, seventy nine pounds, seventeen shillings and two pence, towards the pious work of building a Colledge, which was now set a foot. A committee then being chosen, to prosecute an affair so happily commenced, it soon found encouragement from several other benefactors: the other colonies sent some small help to the undertaking, and several particular gentlemen did more than whole colonies to support and forward it: but because the memorable Mr. JOHN HARVARD led the way by a generosity exceeding the most of them that followed, his name was justly æternized, by its having the name of HARVARD COLLEDGE imposed upon it. While these things were a doing, a society of scholars, to lodge in the new nests, were forming under the conduct of one Mr. Nathaniel Eaton, [or, if thou wilt, reader, Orbilius Eaton] a blade who marvellously deceived the expectations of good men concerning him; for he was one fitter to be master of a Bridewel than a Colledge: and though his avarice was notorious enough to get the name of a Philargyrius* fixed upon him, yet his cruelty was more scandalous than his avarice. He was a rare scholar himself, and he made many more such; but their education truly was "in the school of Tyrannus." Among many other instances of his cruelty, he gave one in causing two men to hold a young gentleman, while he so unmercifully beat him with a cudgel, that, upon complaint of it unto the court in September, 1639, he was fined an hundred marks, besides a convenient sum to be paid unto the young gentleman that had suffered by his unmercifulness; and for his inhumane severities towards the scholars, he was removed from his trust. After this, being first excommunicated by the church of Cambridge, he did himself excommunicate all our churches, going first into Virginia, then into England, where he lived privately until the restauration of King Charles the II. Then conforming to the ceremonies of the church of England, he was fixed at Biddiford, where he became (as Apostata est Osor sui Ordinis)—a bitter persecutor of the Christians that kept faithful to the way of worship, from which he was himself an apostate; until he who had cast so many into prison for conscience, was himself cast into prison for debt; where he did, at length, pay one debt, namely, that unto nature, by death.

$ 3. On August 27, 1640, the magistrates, with the ministers, of the colony, chose Mr. Henry Dunstar to be the President of their new Harvard-Colledge. And in time convenient, the General Court endued the Colledge with a charter, which made it a corporation, consisting of a President, two Fellows, and a Treasurer to all proper intents and purposes: only with powers reserved unto the Governour, Deputy-Governour, and

• Money-lover.

all the magistrates of the colony, and the ministers of the six next towns for the time being, to act as overseers or visitors of the society. The tongues and arts were now taught in the Colledge, and piety was maintained with so laudable a discipline, that many eminent persons went forth from hence, adorned with accomplishments, that rendered them formidable to other parts of the world, as well as to this country, and persons of good quality sent their sons from other parts of the world for such an education as this country could give unto them. The number of benefactors to the Colledge did herewithal increase to such a degree of benefits, that although the President were supported still by a salary from the Treasury of the colony, yet the Treasury of the Colledge itself was able to pay many of its expences; especially after the incomes of Charlestown ferry were by an act of the General Court settled thereupon. To enumerate these benefactors would be a piece of justice to their memory, and the catalogue of their names and works, preserved in the Colledge, has done them that jus. tice. But as I find one article in that catalogue to run thus, "a gentleman not willing his name should be put upon record, gave fifty pounds;" thus I am so willing to believe, that most of those good men that are mentioned were content with a record of their good deeds in the book of God's remembrance, that I shall excuse this book of our church history froin swelling with a particular mention of them: albeit for us to leave unmentioned in this place MOULSON, a SALTONSTAL, an ASHURST, a PENNOYER, a DODDRIDGE, an HOPKINS, a WEB, an USHER, an HULL, a RICHARDS, an HULTON, a GUNSTON, would hardly be excusable. And while these made their liberal contributions, either to the edifice or to the revenue of the Colledge, there were other that enriched its library by presenting of choice books with mathematical instruments thereunto, among whom Sir Kenelm Digby, Sir John Maynard, Mr. Richard Baxter, and Mr. Joseph Hill, ought always to be remembered. But the most considerable accession to this library was, when the Reverend Mr. Theophilus Gale, a well known writer of many books, and owner of more, bequeathed what he had unto his NewEnglish treasury of learning; whereof I find in an Oration of Mr. Increase Mather, at the coinmencement in the year 1681, this commemoration: Libris quam plurimis iisque Lectu dignissimis Bibliotheca Harvardina Locupletatur, quos THEOPHILUS GALEUS, ( Hexap:ilns) Theologus nunquam satis Laudatus, legavit; quosque Novanglorum Moses, Dominum Gulielmum Stougtonum volo, procuravit, eoque se primarium Hujus Academiæ Curatorem præbuit, atque Harvardinos omnes sibi in perpetuum Devinctos habet."* Indeed this library is at this day, far from a Vatican, or a Bodleian dimension, and sufficiently short of that made by Ptolomy at Alexandria, in which Fame hath placed seven hundred thousand volurnes, and of that made by

The library of Harvard College is enriched with a great number of books, and those such as are best worth reading--selected by Theophilus Yule, (of blessed memory) who has never yet received his full meed of praise as a theologian; also, by William Stoughton, the Moses of the New Englanders, who was the first benefactor of this institution, and has bound all true sons of Harvard to himself in bonds of everlasting gratitude.

Theodosius at Constantinople, in which a more certain fame hath told us of ten myriads: nevertheless 'tis I suppose the best furnished that can be shown any where in all the American regions; and when I have the honour to walk in it, I cannot but think on the satisfaction which Heinsius reports himself to be filled withal, when shut up in the library at Leyden; Plerumque in ea simulac pedem posui, foribus Pessulum obdo, et in ipso Eternitatis Gremio, inter tot illustres Animas sedem mihi Sumo: cum ingenti quidem Animo, ut subinde Magnatum me misereat, qui Folicitatem hanc ignorant.*

$ 4. When scholars had so far profitted at the grammar schools that they could read any classical author into English, and readily make and speak true Latin, and write it in verse as well as prose; and perfectly decline the paradigms of nouns and verbs in the Greek tongue, they were judged capable of admission in Harvard-Colledge; and, upon the examination, were accordingly admitted by the President and Fellows; who, in testimony thereof, signed a copy of the Colledge laws, which the scholars were each of them to transcribe and preserve, as the continual remembrancers of the duties whereto their priviledges oblidged them. While the President inspected the manners of the students thus entertained in the Colledge, and unto his morning and evening prayers in the hall joined an exposition upon the chapters; which they read out of Hebrew into Greek, from the Old Testament in the morning, and out of English into Greek, from the New Testament in the evening; besides what Sermons he saw cause to preach in publick assemblies on the Lord's day at Cambridge where the students have a particular gallery allotted unto them; the Fellows resident on the place became Tutors to the several classes, and after they had instructed them in the Hebrew language, led them through all the liberal arts, ere their first four years expired. And in this time, they had their weekly declamations, on Fridays in the Colledge-hall, besides publick disputations, which either the President or the Fellows moderated. Those who then stood candidates to be graduates, were to attend in the hall for certain hours, on Mondays, and on Tuesdays, three weeks together towards the middle of June, which were called "weeks of visitation;" so that all comers that pleased might examine their skill in the languages and sciences which they now pretended unto; and usually, some or other of the overseers of the Colledge would on purpose visit them, whilst they were thus doing what they called "sitting of solstices:" when the commencement arrived—which was formerly the second Tuesday in August, but since, the first Wednesday in July--they that were to proceed Bachelors, held their act publickly in Cambridge; whither the magistrates and ministers, and other gentlemen then came, to put respect upon their exercises: and these exercises were, besides an oration usually made by the President, orations both

• Generally, as soon as I set foot in it, 1 bolt the door, and seem to repose on the very bosom of immortal mind, among so many illustrious spirits : with a sense of delight so exalted, that I pity even princes, who do not know this happiness,

salutatory and valedictory, made by some or other of the commencers, wherein all persons and orders of any fashion then present, were addressed with proper complements, and reflections were made on the most remarkable occurrents of the preceding year; and these orations were made not only in Latin, but sometimes in Greek and in Hebrew also; and some of them were in verse, and even in Greek verse, as well as others in prose. But the main exercises were disputations upon questions, wherein the respondents first made their theses: for according to Vossius, the very essence of the Baccalaureat seems to lye in the thing: BACCALAUREUS being but a name corrupted of Batualius, which Batualius (as well as the French Bataile) comes a Batuendo, a business that carries beating in it: So that, “Batualii fuerunt vocati, quia jam quasi Batuissent cum adversario, oc Manus conseruissent; hoc est, Publice Disputassent, atque ita Peritiæ suce specimen dedissent.* In the close of the day, the President, with the formality of delivering a book into their hands, gave them their first degree: but such of them as had studied three years after their first degree, to answer the Horation character of an artist,

Qui Sludiis Annos Septem dedit insenuitque Libris et curis.t And besides their exhibiting synopses of the liberal arts, by themselves composed, now again publickly disputed on some questions, of perhaps a little higher elevation; these now, with a like formality, received their second degree, proceeding Masters of Art.--" Quis enim doctrinam amplectitur ipsam, præmia si tollis ?"'The words used by the President, in this action, were:

FOR THE BATCHELOURS. Admitto le ad Primum Gradum in Artibus, scilicet, ad respondendum questioni, pro more Academiarum in Anglià.

Tibique Trado hunc Librum, unà cum potestate publicè prælegendi, in aliqua artium (quam profiteris) quotiescunque ad hoc munus evocatus fueris.

FOR THE MASTERS. Admitto te ad Secundum Gradum in Artibus, pro more Academiarum in Anglia.

Tradoque tibi hunc Librum, unà cum potestate profitendi, ubicunque ad hoc munus publicè evocatus fueris.||

§ 5. Mr. Henry Dunster, continued the President of Harvard-Colledge, until his unhappy entanglement in the snares of Anabaptism fill’d the

• They were called Battailers, because they had battled as it were with an antagonist—that is, had engaged In a public controversy or discussion, and thus given a specimen of their proficiency.

+ Who seven long years bas spent in student-toil.
| For who would seek even learning itself, if you should strip it of its rewards ?

$ I admit you to the first degree in Arts, that is to say, to the privilege of responding in debate, according to the custom of the English Universities; and I deliver to you this book, with the privilege of reading in public, in such profession as you shall select, as often as you are summoned to that duty.

| I admit you to the second degree in Arts, according to the custom of the English Universities; and I deliver to yua this book, with the privilege of practising a profession, whenever you shall be called upon to do so.

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