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this review entered on the public mi at least of an incalculable multitude nistration of the Gospel, there were of infant spirits. found a few lifting up their voices in protest and advocacy, that it was not

The Leisure Hour. 1861. only possible but probable, that all who

The Sunday at Home. 1861. died in infancy, having been guilty of

Religious Tract Society. no actual sin-no rejection of Him who These two fine volumes (and espewas appointed the world's Redeemer, cially the first of the two), may conweresaved. Imust nowspeak in the first fidently challenge comparison with all person. As having been from the be the periodical literature of England, ginning (ab oro, as they say) of anti issued for the instruction and delight slavery tendencies, I “cast in my lot" of the common people. The engravwith the pleaders for probability, to ings are first-rate, and the old supershare the odium of being suspected - stition that everybody is six feet high, suspected! denounced, as being unsound, seems to have been at length laid aside and licentiously squandering the salva by the artists of these volumes. The tion of Christ. But Common Sense

pictures are, consequently, far more was with us, and we prospered. Nay, sife-like. We have read some of the that is not the accurate account. It stories in 'The Leisure Hour,'and can protested against our paltering limi understand quite well that such writtation. Mere probability of all being ing as they exhibit for a penny a week, saved implied, it said, the possibility of could be commanded only by the resome or many of infant spirits, who sources and the circulation of a great had neither done, nor spoken, nor society. The two volumes are solid thought an evil thing, being consigned monuments of the literary and picto the fires of Hell. Civilization, not torial arts of 1861. to speak of piety, will not endure it. You must progress, Reverend Sirs. So Congregational Church Worship. A we of the anti-slavery school ascended Paper read at Halifax, by G. W. the platform to proclaim the certainty CONDER, of Leeds. W. Kent and of the salvation of all dying in infancy

Co. 1861. -when the pro-slavery Conservatism

Probably it is not within the reach of Dogma was now in its turn reduced

of our influence to persuade any man to a feeble protestation that we were

to purchase a threepenny tract, much wise above what is written-as if it

less to purchase a hundred of them at were not written that God is just, which He would not be were He to

the price of one guinea. If we could consign to Hell fire any infant spirit. ability, we should say to any person

form so exaggerated an idea of our All Common Sense says, Amen. You possessed of one spare pound, and need not try by sophistications to re

good principles, send for a hundred duce the judgment. Common Sense copies of Mr. Conder's essay on worwill not now tolerate you in preaching. ship as it is, and as it ought to be, as was preached by not a few, even so amongst the Independents and Baplate as fifty years ago, that there are tists, and circulate them among your possibly, if not probably a multitude of friends at church next Sunday. By infants," not a span long," dreeing the penalty of Adam's sin in the abyss of gift

upon the congregation, and if you

so doing, you will confer a spiritual Hell. SIMPLY, IT IS MOST DREADFUL are cursed with a pulpit formalist, you

will mightily quicken for some time to

come, his energies in prayer and praise. IMPREGNATED, AND

The vulgar dissenting prejudices SINCE."

against · forms' and 'chanting,' are Not long since! There remain, at here treated not very ceremoniously. this moment, not a few of the old Con It is seldom indeed, as Mr. Conder servative party, who hold by the an says, that the 'worship’ in a dissenting tique doctrine of the possible damnation chapel wholly without forms, is of a

TO THINK WITH

WHAT THOUGHTS OF
GOD THE
MIND OF SCOTLAND WAS

THAT NOT LONG

nature to lift up the soul to heaven by course. The book is magnificently its nobleness and fervour. In this, as brought out in respect of type, paper, in so many other things, our grand old and binding, as if the publishers were cause has been half ruined by the do- resolved that it should last for many minant influence of a petty traditional years to come. The many friends of sectarianism, proceeding on the theory the preacher will gladly avail themthat whatever the Church of England selves of this opportunity of obtaining does is wrong. Thank Heaven, there a valuable memorial of a ministry is a turn in the tide, and an altogether through half a century. It is a volume different class of men are likely to full of excellent counsel, especially to guide the future destinies of Noncon- those who are engaged in the loftiest formity.

occupations. Dr. Reed's charges are St. Mark's School by the Seaside in man, and this is his chief glory,

'weighty and powerful;' but he is a the Summer of 1861. A suggestion by Rev. STEPHEN HAWKEY, M.A. Ať an annual dinner of one of the

mightier in works than in words. London : Hamilton, Adams, and Co. charitable institutions which he found

This pamphlet details the success- ed, the Duke of Wellington, in his old ful execution of an ingenious project age, spoke of him as a 'great man, for giving some of the boys of two whose requisition to preside he felt nationalschools, one inland at Windsor, himself unable to refuse.' We imagine the other maritime at Portsmouth, a that that feature in Dr. Reed's chasummer holiday by the interchange of racter which especially impressed the homes. The particulars of the enter- Duke, was his faculty of organization prise are too intricate to describe, but and government. So universal and so it may be said that the pleasure given deep is the conviction of Dr.Reed's practo the boys, and the civilizing in- tical wisdom and capacity, that it is imfluence thence accruing, were so great, possible to avoid sincerely wishing that that the history of the undertaking is the heathen had enjoyed some of those well deserving the attention of those beneficial exertions which have been who may feel prompted to go and do devoted to the idiots. One of the serlikewise.

mons in this volume, that on the death

of the Princess Charlotte, will be read Charges and Sermons on Special Occa- at this moment with profound interest,

sions, during a Ministry of Fifty Years. By ANDREW REED, D.D. similar to our own under the recent

as pourtraying a state of feeling so Ward and Co. 1861.

national bereavement. May the pious * Rise up before the face of the old author still be spared many years to man. In this volume, the venerable enjoy the retrospect of a well-spent author concludes his long ministerial life.

THE

CHRISTIAN SPECTATOR.

MARCH, 186 2.

MR. UNDERHILL'S BOOK ON THE WEST INDIES.*

TO MANY the whole West Indian Question is blasé. If it were introduced into Mincing-lane, or on the Liverpool Exchange, the possible and probable polite reply would be somewhat as follows:

- Blank the West Indies ; they are ruined lock and stock; clean and complete done for ; the planters are bankrupt; the negroes are idle squatters ; and the parsons are fanatics; that blessed boon of a straggling philanthropy called emancipation has been the dead ruin of the colonies, and we don't want to hear any platform or pulpit stories about “ Pumpkin-Headed-Quashie.”' Ñay more, and we speak from experience, if this West Indian Question turn up in an evening party composed of gentlemen and ladies, who say they believe that God has made of one blood all nations to dwell on the face of the earth,' and who at pious intervals hear with bowed heads that God is the Creator and Preserver of all men,' and join in the intoned amen at the close of the solemn and sublime prayer ; if even to such a class this question should be introduced, the chances are a thousand to one that the majority present would re-echo in politer phrase the disgusting cant we have quoted above. And we declare we should not be surprised to hear a fast young man, or a smart young lady, avow their belief that the emancipated negroes of the West Indies were the Anthropophagi of Shakespere, 'whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders.

Just now, however, it appears to us most desirable to re-open the ‘vexed question of negro emancipation. Nearly a quarter of a century has elapsed since, amid prognostications as gloomy and as false as those of Zadkiel, the Imperial Parliament decreed freedom to 800,000 of our black and coloured fellow subjects in the West Indies, and as if to visit themselves with penalty condign for a long

* The West Indies : their Social and Religious Condition.' By Edward Bear UNDERHILL. Jackson & Co., London, 1862. VOL. III.---NEW SERIES.

9

complicity in the guilty phantasm that man could hold property in man, and buy what was woman-born, and feel no shame, the people of this country cheerfully voted twenty millions sterling to the slaveholders of the West Indies, for an alleged, but never proven, loss consequent upon emancipation. Looking now at what has come to be called the • American crisis,'descrying as a future, though we think remote, possibility, the freedom of the four millions of slaves born and bred for slavery in the rice and cotton plantations of the South, as the result of the present mad, bloody, and fraticidal war between the North and the South ; descrying this, it becomes us to study gravely the social and the fiscal questions that are so intertwined with, and inseparable from, the problem of Freedom versus Slavery, or vice verså. We are enabled to do so from the most recent investigation into the 'social and religious condition of the West Indies,' by a gentleman, not in holy orders, who, after a lengthened travel in India, has visited the West Indies, and, during a protracted stay in its principal islands, endeavoured to collect from all parties indiscriminately facts and statistics by which he and his readers might be guided to safe and just conclusions respecting the present condition of these islands. In this paper we will endeavour to let Mr. Underhill speak for himself as much as possible, while we glean from his observations such information as shall enable us to look at the West Indian question with philosophic calmness, as we deduce our inferences from his ably-adjusted facts. Three questions present themselves to our minds, and we will search the book to obtain their answer ;—the condition of the islands as properties; the causes of the existing good and evil; and the moral and religious condition of the enfranchised population.

1. What is the condition of the West Indian islands as properties.—On the voyage out, Mr. Underhill was assured that the Act of 1838 was, with a great want of wisdom, carried into hasty execution. The change was too sudden, and was inevitably followed by the ruin of Jamaica, Grenada, St. Vincent's, and the rest of the English Antilles.' The slave, too,‘was unfit for freedom; be ought to have been placed under salutary restraint for a long term of years' (he had been that for generations back, and yet was ‘unfit;' a little longer, yet a little longer, and by West Indian logic, he will be fit for freedom); but the ‘fanatical zeal of philanthropists and missionaries defeated every measure of this kind.' Chief amongst these were the ‘Baptist missionaries, who were the great obstacle to a sound and fair settlement of those economical questions which emancipation raised for solution. If this be so, no wonder that Mr. Trollope, who thinks sherry and bitters a very pretty habit in a warm country,' should add, that he hates the Baptists as he hates poison.'

ST. KITTS was one of the first islands visited by Mr. Underhill. It is most lovely in its scenery : the Devonshire of the West Indies. Here he found the labourers well paid ;' the money rate of wages pretty uniform ;''the produce large and increasing ; so that ' last year they exported 9,600 hogsheads of sugar, the largest export of sugar for fifty-one years.' That is how St. Kitts is ruined by emancipation! This happy result is 'doubtless owing to the residence on the island of many of the proprietors of the estates, and the wisdom which of late years has characterised the measures of its government.' Even Mr. Trollope, who did not visit St. Kitts, admits that he was told that it was prospering fairly ;' although sugar was not exported in great quantities.' Only more than for ‘half a century. Credat Judæus.

GRENADA was the next island visited. It is an irregular heap of volcanic masses piled one on another; the interstices between the rocks and the table lands being the only cultivable parts. These do certainly stand dressed in living green, and present a charming coup d'ail from the sea. It was once a prince among the islands, owing to the vast amount of smuggling that went on there, in consequence of its vicinity to the Spanish main. It is now apparently ‘fast going to ruin. 'The streets and squares were grass-grown ;

the shops looked bare and dull, and no vehicles broke the silence of the rude paving over which we stumbled.' Tropical vegetation chokes up the dismantled fort ; climbs, and then crumbles down the empty dwellings ; clothes every rock with freshness ; even the steep volcanic sides of the mountains are draped with the roots of trees.' Alas! this is too true a picture, but how has it been brought about? Grenada owes its decay to the perverse conduct of the planters at emancipation. A system of summary ejectment was resorted to on the estates, without any regard to age or sex, which drove the people to emigrate to Trinidad or elsewhere.' That is how Grenada was ruined by emancipation; and, although during the intervening years, the negro has sought and found a quiet home of industrious labour in more favoured colonies, according to the high authority of Mr. Trollope, he has made no approach to the civilisation of his white fellow-creature, whom he imitates as a monkey does a man.' Still even Grenada is not in a hopeless condition of collapse. The planters of Barbadoes are buying land cheap there, and a 'portion of the over-crowded population of that island has been induced to transfer its labour' to Grenada.

TRINIDAD was the third of the Antilles visited by Mr. Underhill. His chapter on that island is a most valuable addition to the scanty knowledge we possess of it. He arrived there August 23, and remained there till September 25; during which time he travelled Dearly its whole length and breadth, visited several estates, and conversed, not only with missionaries, but with the chief justice,

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