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they took effectual steps to prevent it being brought about. Every institution and form of procedure calculated to keep up dissension and disorder amongst the Poles was renewed and perpetuated by these marauding monarchs, whe, though they were for the present plutted with their prey, contemplated returning after a time of rest lo devour what remained of Poland,
Turning again to our map, we find large tracts of Poland marked s annexed to Russia and Prussia in 1793. The course of events which led to this was exactly what they had purposed and prepared le in 1776, upon the completion of the first partition. The misortunes which had come upon Poland in 1772, and subsequently, nduced an earnest and intelligent spirit of co-operation among the Polish patriots. All were emulous in seeking to raise their country from the condition into which she had fallen through old feuds among themselves. On the 16th December, 1790, the Diet assemWel with the avowed intention to reform the system of government. The Diet declared the guarantee of Russia given in 1776, by which that power interfered with the internal affairs of Poland, to be null, an invasion of national independence incompatible with the natural rights of every civilized society, and with the political primleges of every free nation." On the 3rd of May a law was laid lefore the Diet, entitled, “ The constitution of Poland.” The general eatures of the measure were—the abolition of serfdom, complete liberty for the members of all religious bodies, the division of the Diet into two Houses an upper and lower (very much answering o our two Houses of Parliament), the extinction of the absurd and nischievous liberum veto, the extension of the franchise, a system national education; it also established an hereditary monarchy the Electoral House of Saxony, with the power reserved to the lation of electing a new race of kings should the Saxon line become tinct. When Russia took the lead in the first dismemberment, he took care to appoint agents throughout the kingdom, and in he Diet of Poland. These agents did their best to prevent the assing of this salutary measure of reform, but their efforts did not vail
. The nation and nearly all the members of the Diet were lent upon carrying out a plan so eminently adapted to secure safety ind prosperity. The Bill was passed with only twelve dissentients. Poland appeared to be in a fair way of securing a liberal and wellistablished constitution.
Unanimity and peace prevailed among the people and their representatives. A bright and happy day dawned upon the land, which had so long been enveloped in darkness. The friends of liberty everywhere rejoiced at the tidings of a whole nation rising So energetically and prudently to a proper assertion of its rights. The brightness and promise, however, were not of long duration. The dissidents in the Diet were soon turned to account by Catherine.
They were in her pay, and she determined that a pretext should be furnished through them for interfering once more in the affairs of Poland. In May, 1792, a confederation was formed at Targowiz And on the 18th of the same month the Russian minister at Warsaw declared that the impress, “called on by many die tinguished Poles who had confederated against the pretended Costitution of 1791, would, in virtue of her guarantee march an army on Poland, so as to restore the liberties of the Republie
. She soon after issued a manifesto, attempting to justify this daringly wicked deed, and protesting that she would not violate Polish territory. Royal manifestoes have not been the most re liable of documents sent forth to the world, and the most potoriously lying of these are those which have proceeded from the house of Romanoff. There is another power whose base perfidious polies then, as it does now, caused the Poles much trouble. In 1790, the King of Prussia entered into a treaty with the Republic of Poland of reciprocal guarantee of territory, and engaging to supply succotur in case of attack. The treaty had one stipulation, which must be distinctly borne in mind, in order fully to understand the subsequent treachery of Prussia. That stipulation was as follows :-“If any foreign power, in virtue of any preceding acts and stipulations whatsoever, should claim the right of interfering in the internal afiairs of the Republic of Poland, at what time or in what mannet soever, his Majesty, the king of Prussia will first employ his good offices to prevent hostilities in consequence of such pretension ; but if his good offices should be ineflectual, and that hostilities against Poland should ensue, his Majesty the King of Prussia considering such an event as a case provided for in this treaty, will assist the Republic according to the tenor of the 4th article of the present treaty." “ The aid here referred to,” says the Edinburgh Review,
was on the part of Prussia 22,000 or 30,000 men, or in case of necessity, all its disposable force. The undisputed purpose of the article was to guard Poland against an interference in her affairs by hussia, under pretence of the guarantee of the Polish Constitution, in 1775. No other danger of this nature existed. Fu this exclusive object was the stipulation formed. “When Catherine through her representative at Warsaw, announced in 1792 that she was about to send an army into Poland, the Polish Diet appealed to the King of Prussia to render the succour he had engaged to supply. How did he act? How else than perfidiously would a king of Prussia act ?” In May, 1792, Luchesini, the Prussian minister at Warsaw, gave a vague and evasive answer to a communication made to him respecting preparations made for defence against Russia. He answered, “That his master received the communication as a proof of the esteem of the King and the Republic of Poland ; but that he could take no cognizance of the affairs which
occupied the Diet.” Stanislaus also claimed his aid. On the 8th of June, 1792, the King of Prussia replied to Stanislaus-“In considering the new constitution which the Republic adopted without my knowledge and without my concurrence, I never thought of supporting or protecting it.” Thus did Frederick William deny his own repeated declarations, belie his solemn engagements, and trample under foot all that is held most sacred among men. So signal a breach of faith is not to be found in the modern history of great states. It resembles rather the vulgar frauds and low artifices which under the name of “reason of State, made up the policy of the petty usurpers and tyrants of Italy in the fourteenth century."** The war in 1792 was short, sharp, and decisive. It was too unequal to be of doubtful or long duration. In seven bloody engagements fought in a fewer number of weeks, the Poles were beaten. CatheTine was victorious ; and in conjunction with the King of Prussia, she set about despoiling Poland of a great part of its remaining territory. A tract of country nearly twice the size of England and Wales was annexed to Russia, whilst Prussia took upwards of 22,000 square
miles. Poland was now reduced to less than onethird of its original and rightful dimensions.
Taking a glance at the map, we find how small Poland has become by the partitions of 1772 and 1793, but we see further how Russia ind her allies on each occasion stole those portions of Polish territory which were most valuable. Reduced to an insignificant fraction, the constantly vanishing quantity will soon disappear. The first partition was so novel and daring a piece of business, that some nineteen years were allowed to elapse before the pleasant operation was repeated on the poor sufferer. But now a short time will suffice to make an end of the sick man. The treatment of Poland by Catherine and Frederic William of Prussia from this time became, if possible, more insolent and tyrannical. It appears certain, from the conduct of Catherine and Frederic, their intention was to drive the Poles to immediate open war. In 1793, the King of Prussia entered Poland, charging its inhabitants with propagating anarchal opinions and supporting Jacobin clubs.
The Empress of Russia shared, or asserted that she shared, this view. Frederic William seized on great Poland, and the troops of Catherine occupied the remaining Polish territory. To give to the contemplated acts of annexation some show of justice, a Diet was summoned, and by means of violence to some sturdy Polish opponent and threats uttered, it was compelled to sign treaties with Russia and Prussia, ceding to them such portions of Poland as were demanded. It could not be expected that these acts of rapine would be quietly submitted to at a time when the French
revolution was exciting the ardent desire of all oppressed nati a itiis for lilerty. A people even so long tyrannized over, and brol down, as were the Poles, would not yield to such exactions. In epil of March, 179+, the people rose and expelled the Russ garrison from Cracow ; on the 28th of that mouth Kosciusko, v had been engaged in the American war of Independence, ente the city as its governor and defender. The movement spread to parts of the country. The people became unanimous and de nuined in endeavouring to cast off the unbearable yoke of the ha di uscovite. The Russians were driven out of Warsaw and me other places in the country. Numerous battles were fought, w success generally on the side of the Poles. Kosciusko proclain the constitution of 1791, apnounced a national confederation, a issued a manifesto, copies of which he sent to St. Petersby Vieppa, l'erlin. The last struggle made on behalf of Poland si be given from the Edinburgh Review :-“Kosciusko harrassed the arvance of an Austrian, Prussian, and Russian army, cong trated the greater part of his forces at Warsaw. Frederic Willi advanced against ihe capital at the head of 40,000 discipli troops. Kosciusko with 12,000 irregulars, made an obstinate sistance for several hours on the 8th of Jupe, and retired to entrenched (amp before Warsaw. On the 4th of October, Kosciu with ouly 18,000 men, thought it necessary to hazard a battle Macciowise, to prevent ihe junction of the two Russian divisions Suwarrow and Ferșea. Success was long and valiantly contest Kosciusko, after the most admirable exertions of judgment a courage, fell covered with wounds. The Polish army fled. 1 Russians and Cossacks were melted at the sight of their galla enemy, who lay insensible on the field. When be opened his ey and learnt the full extent of the disaster, be vainly implored enemy to put an end to his sufferings. The Russian officers mor with admiration and compassion, treated his wounds with tend ness, and sent him with due respect, a prisoner of war to Pete burg. Catharine threw him into a dungeon ; from which he w released by Paul on his accession, perhaps partly from hatred his mother, and partly from one of those paroxysms of transie generosity of which that brutal lunatic was not incapable.
From that moment the further defence of Poland became hopele Suwarrow advanced to the capital, and stimulated his army to t assault of the great suburb Praga, by the barbarous promise of licence to pillage for forty-eight hours. A dreadful contest ensue on the 4th November, 1794, in which the inhabitants performe prodigies of useless valour, making a stand in every street and almost every house. All the horrors of war which the most civilize armies practice on such occasions were here seen with teufol violence. No age, or sex, or condition was spared. The murde children formed a sort of barbarous sport for the assailants.
most unspeakable outrages were offered to the living and the d. The mere infliction of death was an act of mercy. The ets streamed with blood ; eighteen thousand human carcases? e carried away from them after the massacre had ceased. Many e burnt to death by the flames which consumed the town. Muldes were driven by the bayonet into the Vistula. A great of fugitives perished by the fall of a large bridge, over which fled. These tremendous scenes closed the resistance of Poland, completed the triumph of her oppressors.” There are many al deeds of wholesale slaughter of human beings left on record, reading of which makes the blood boil in one's veins. It is with greatest difficulty that even a Christian man can refrain from ring execrations over the memories of those who were the initors and agents in these horrible crimes. The massacre of St. tholomew is one such dark and bloody deed, the slaughter at mpore is another ; but these are far surpassed in magnitude and aty by the brutal doings of Russia towards the Poles. Poland now entirely blotted out of existence. There was nothing left as a kingdom, except the recollections which her suffering exiled sons and daughters fondly cherished. Nor was there than one quarter from which they could hope for succour and al restoration. France had never countenanced any of the arous and treacherous acts by which Poland had been blotted from among the nations of Europe. She had not actively posed to save Poland from the depredators who stole her terri.
But on more than one occasion, France, then under the rule peculiarly profligate and weak king, addressed remonstrances e Muscovite and German powers, to which it was deemed ssary to pay attention. From the last partition, in 1795, sands of the most active and intelligent Poles found congenial loyment under the Directorate of the French Revolution. e was a fellow-feeling between the exiled Pole and the revoluzed French Polish patriotism found its second best employ. tin fighting for what was then generally deemed the cause of leous liberty. By eclisting in this service, the Poles saw that
would have a favourable chance of being avenged for the Ities practised upon them in the partitions of their country. ess than 15,000 Poles under Dombrowske, gladly and gallantly ht in Italy against the spoilators of their country. The legion h these Poles formed was accounted by Napoleon among the est and best of his army. Partly as a reward for these services, promised to restore Polish nationality. After the treaty of it, concluded in 1807, Napoleon compelled Prussia to give up 00 miles of the territory of Poland. With 43,000 miles of he constituted the Duchy of Warsaw to be governed by the