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pious inspector of a nunnery, or

nunnery, or into view--his own feelings at the translations from Madame Guion. moment, and the probabilities as He says, amongst other things, they might appear even to an in

different “So love and desire God only that if

His own feelings

person. he would create hell in thee thou

are known from a letter written at mightest be ready to offer thyself, by his that time, and given in Mr. Peargrace, for his eternal honor and glory to son's biographical sketch. Besides speak, at every morsel thou wilt eat, at assuring his friend, who must have every stirring or moving of every article doubted the propriety of his course, or member of thy body, thou must ask that he was averse to the honors ofleave of him in thy heart." “ The more fered him, and that in any station he perfectly thou livest in the abstraction and departure and bare nakedness of thy must have differed from his former mind from all creatures, the more nakedly brethren in divers practices, he says, and purely shalt thou have the fruition " and what will you say, if there be of the Lord thy God, and shalt live the in this thing somewhat of that you more heavenly und angelical life.”

mention, and would allow of recon. It is manifest that a tendency is ciling the devout on different sides, here exhibited which in some cir- and of enlarging those good souls cumstances might have led Leigh- you meet with from their little fetton to serious errors in religion ; ters, though possibly with little sucand it was perhaps the early influ- cess? Yet the design is commenence of the old man who lost his ears dable, pardonable at least." From for presbytery, which neutralized or this it would appear, that though repressed this bent of character. Leighton, out of compliance with

If we have correctly described his friend's views, underrated his Leighton's character, there was in own hopes ; he still must have had him a contemplative, intuitive mind, a prevailing opinion that a change a temper inclined to order, tranquil. of church government could be eflity and subjection, which differed fected without schism or persecuwidely from the logical, free, practi- tion, which would issue in the peace cal spirit of the Scotch Calvinists. and prosperity of the church. A There is no wonder, then, that his hope, indeed, at which we can hardsympathies were divorced from his ly help smiling, as we look back on brethren, and that he looked some- the very plain reasons which now where else for relations more con- appear why it should be disap. genial to his disposition.

pointed. But even the wise men of But surely a good man like Leigh- the day could not confidently pre- . ton would never have changed his dict the result, and still less could a denomination as he did, without retired man like Leighton. Por some probability, in his own view, the probabilities were such that difthat the endeavor to introduce epis. ferent tempers and judgments would copacy would be useful and suc. estimate them differently. There cessful. For, as he thought the were a number of ministers who church of Scotland a true church, felt and thought with Leighton. only capable of improvement, he There were many worthy Episcocould not have sought to bring about palians in Scotland who adhered to those improvements, if he had seen the church which James had set up. a risk that the church would be There was a part of Scotland-in split asunder in the attempt. Was the north and around Aberdeenthen his sagacity at fault, and did his where opinions were declared for ignorance of men lead him into a some alteration of church policy. path which a more keen-sighted It was confidently asserted that two man would have shunned ?

thirds of the ministers would come Here we have two things to take There was a general dislike


to the violence of a party in the of others. But when a man leaves kirk, and a reaction against the co- one party for another without leay. venant. And the reflux of loyalty ing his Christian love behind him, it was thought would carry men when he goes over, not to fight or high and dry beyond the tossing to take pay, but because he feels waves of resistance to any law that it better for him or for the touching an established religion. cause of God that he should do so, All these things might well per- then, whatever we may think of the suade some men even of sound soundness of his judgment, we ought judgment, that the proposed change to feel that he gives the best proof would not endanger the peace of of the soundness of his heart, and the church and country. And as that he has a right to our esteem as the change was to be accomplished much as ever. at any rate, it might seem best for But if Leighton hoped to do good those who honestly favored it, to in this way, he was wofully deceivguard against bad counsels by their ed, as the event showed, and as he own personal co-operation.

soon began to be aware, when he got These considerations will defend a view of the character of his assoLeighton, we believe, from the ciates. We may almost say, that no charge of unhallowed motives and set of men banded together to de. unusual weakness of judgment. And stroy the Christian religion were evif there were fewer of them, if his er as bad as these who united to commentary on Peter were the only build up the Episcopal church in memorial of the man, we should be. Scotland. The sight of Leighton lieve him still good and pure in his among them must have been like most questionable actions; we should the sight of a dove seated on a carcling to him if he had turned Catholic case, amid vultures and carrionor Quaker.

If he disliked the bitterness Leighton's conduct towards his of the adherents to the kirk, as an former brethren after his separation unchristian spirit, what must be from the kirk, is a strong proof of have thought of the hypocrisy, the the rectitude of his views. Amid cruelty, the cupidity of these men; the persecutions and violences of and what wonder was it that he others in his party, he ever pursued longed for retirement and removal a course of mildness and concilia. beyond the limits of Scotland ! tion, patiently trying to bring men The bishops ordained at the same to his way of thinking, until he time with Leighton, were Sharp, found it hopeless, and feeling little Fairfoul, and Hamilton. Sharp's bitterness towards those who thwart- unheard of hypocrisy and dissimued his endeavors. This is a good lation could not then have been test of character. When men, and known to Leighton,-certainly not in especially ministers, leave a church all its extent. It appears from Bailfrom base motives, they of course lie's letters that he deceived that and proverbially hate their former sagacious man; and the other bad friends, depreciate their talents, and parts of his character did not fully blacken their names. Most men, open until he had obtained the realso, when they leave a church ward of his management. This is without base motives, unduly dislike not the place to follow the course their old associates, either because of this wicked man in his schemes they are aware of being themselves of perfidy, cruelty, and ambition, talked against, or because they are until he became the victim of the conscious of needing excuses for dark fanaticism which grew out of the step they have taken, and can his own conduct. Hardly any drafind the best excuses in the failings ma in history ends more horribly than his life ; and avenging justice strictly to rules and to their duty. On seldom hoisted a man so signally carnal way of living about them that very


the contrary, there was a levity and a " by his own petard."

" The ven

much scandalized me. There was indeed geance,” says Mr. Hallam, who is

one Scougal, bishop of Aberdeen, that no friend to the Presbyterians, “ ul. was a man of rare temper, great piety timately taken on this infamous apos

and prudence; but I thought he was too

much under Sharp's conduct, and was at tate and persecutor, though doubt- least too easy to him." less in violation of what is justly reckoned a universal rule of mo.

Of his namesake, Burnet, archrality, ought at least not to weaken bishop of Glasgow, he speaks more our abhorrence of the man him. than once as being particularly cruself.” Of Fairfoul, Burnet says, el, although naturally a soft, goodthat

natured man, and inclined to mod

erate counsels. After the defeat of “ He was a pleasant and facetious man, the Cameronians at Pentland Hill, insinuating and crafty ; but he was a belter physician than a divine. His life was

this man

“advised the hanging of scarce free from scandal; and he was all those who would not renounce eminent in nothing that belonged to his the covenant and promise to con. own function. He had not only sworn the covenant, but had persuaded others

form to the laws for the future ;" to do it. And when one objected to him and shortly after, with a letter in that it went against his conscience, he his pocket from the king in which his could not be chewed, but were to be majesty thought that blood enough swallowed down; and since it was plain had been shed, he let an execution that a man could not live in Scotland un- go on before producing the document. less he sware it, therefore it must be swal- Another of these dignitaries, Ross, lowed down without any farther exam. Burnet calls “a poor, ignorant, ination.".

worthless man, but in whom obeOf Hamilton, he says, that

dience and fury were so eminent “ He was a good natured man,


that they supplied all other dewcak. He was always believed episco- fects;” and he says that Ross and pal. Yet he had so far complied in the time of the covenant, that he affected a

Paterson in the time of James II, peculiar expression of his counterfeit zeal procured an address to be signed for their cause, to secure himself from by several of their bench, offering to suspicion; when he gave the sacrament, he excommunicated all that were not

concur with the king in all that he true to the covenant, using a form in the desired with relation to those of his Old Testament of shaking out the lap of own religion, (for the courtly style his gown: saying, so did he cast out of the church and communion all that dealt

now was not to name popery any falsely in the covenant.

other way than by calling it the Of the other bishops, Burnet says might still continue in force and be

king's religion,) provided the laws -after speaking in exalted terms executed against the Presbyterians." of two episcopal ministers, Nairn Of Paterson, after the revolution, and Charteris--that their deportment he says that great pains were taken was in all points so different from by him “ to persuade the Jacobites what became their function, that he

to take the oaths, but on design to had a more than ordinary zeal kin. break them ; for he thought by that dled within him in regard to it.

means they could have a majority “They were not only furious against in parliament.” To some of the very remiss in all parts of their function: character, but even of them he

ordinary clergy he gives a better Some did not live within their dioceses ; and those who did seemed to have no care speaks in such terms as the fol. of them. They showed no zeal against lowing : vice; the most eminently wicked in the county were their particular confidents ; 66 The new incumbents who were put they took no pains to keep their clergy in the places of the ejected ministers,


were generally very mean and despicable dote that this nobleman, when up. in all respects. They were the worst

braided for his vices, replied that preachers I ever heard; they were jgn the king's representative ought to were openly vicious. They were a disc represent him in all respects. We grace to their orders and the sacred func- might go on to speak of others, as tions, and were indeed the dreg and refuse the lawyers Primrose and Fletcher, who rose above contempt or scandal, who kept cruelty as much as possiwere men of such violeni tempers that sible within the lines of technical they were as much hated as the others justice ; of the military bloodhounds, were despised."

such as Gen. Dalziell and Sir James And with regard to those who Turner, whose ferocity exceeded filled the vacancies in the west, we belief; of the administrations subsehave this passage :

quent to that of Lauderdale's, which “ Sir Robert Murray went through the in some respects surpassed the prewest of Scotland. When he came back, ceding in severity of laws. But he told me the clergy were such a set of what we have said is enough to give men, so ignorant and so scandalous, that it was not possible to support them, un.

sample of the character of the less the greatest part of them could be leaders in this movement, which is turned out, and better men found to put our object rather than to enter into in their places."

the scenes of misgovernment and Such were the clerical helpers of persecution. Leighton, according to one of them. Such men of course wished for selves, and if we deduct one half Leighton's concurrence only that from Burnet's testimony, on account his piety might reflect honor upon of the opposition to the reigning their party: they had no idea of measures in Scotland, into which his asking or following the advice of a moderate and tolerant principles led simple hearted and good man like him, the other half surely is far more him. He on his part, soon began than enough to show that they were to find out that he was in strange unfit company for Leighton. Let company. The feasting and jollity us now look for a moment at the upon the day of his consecration at laymen enlisted in the same cause. Westminister, displeased him; it First in order comes the Earl of did not look like the remodeling of Middleton, the king's first commis- a church. He had in his mind a sioner, who with his intimates was plan of union with the Presbyterians, drunk a considerable part of the and another plan to promote a hightime, and whose cruel and rapacious er degree of piety than had before violations of justice, were almost existed. But when he talked of without parallel. He was supplant- these subjects to Sharp, he found ed by Lauderdale, who was origin. him unwilling to listen ; when he ally a friend to the Presbyterians turned to Fairfoul he heard nothing and to tolerant counsels, but was from him but merry stories. He led by his sensuality, resentment, soon, therefore, lost all hope, and and servility to the court, into the once told Burnet“ that how fully worst of measures. The Earl of soever he was satisfied in his own Rothes, was another of the princi- mind as to Episcopacy itself, yet it pal members of the administration. seemed that God was against them, He too degenerated until he stuck and that they were not like to be at nothing. Sharp said of him to the men that should build up his Burnet, “that it was a great happi. church, so that the struggling about ness to have to deal with sober and it seemed to him like fighting against serious men; for Lord Rothes and God.” Leighton went with his col. his crew were perpetually drunk.” leagues to Scotland, but left them We have somewhere seen the anec. before arriving at Edinburgh in orVol. III.


der to avoid the intended pomp of much preaching and catechising," their reception. He had chosen for how great a contrast with what Burnet his own the small see of Dunblane, says concerning the religious knowand kept himself very much within ledge of the Presbyterians in the west. his province, declining all honors In 1669, on the deposal of Alexanand titles, as far as possible, and der Burnet, Leighton, much against studying to imitate the best bishops his will, was appointed archbishop of the early church. He seldom of Glasgow. He continued to hold was in his place at the parliament this dignity until 1674, when he reunless it were to vote against violent tired forever from public life. His measures. Twice he went to Lon- activity in this new station condon by the persuasion of his friends sisted chiefly in efforts to bring the in order to give the king a fair ac. Presbyterians to terms, and for this count of the counsels prevailing in purpose he was willing to conform Scotland. He said that they “ were the established church as nearly as so violent that he could not concur possible to the model of the kirk : in the planting the Christian religion although the order of bishops was itself in such a manner, much less still to be retained, yet they were to a form of government.” Although act only in the capacity of presidents there were no persecutions in his of church judicatories; and ministers own diocese, yet his love of retire. opposed to the order might declare ment, and a feeling of shame at be. that they submitted only for the sake ing remotely a partaker in other of peace. Long and wearisome men's sins, made him desirous of were his efforts to reconcile parties. giving up his bishopric and breaking In concert with some other mod. off all official connexion with such erate men he procured, indeed, a party. This, however, was not meetings to be held, and made ad. as yet effected. He continued in vances towards union ; but all perthe diocese of Dunblane from 1662 suasions were only idle wind to the to 1669. His addresses to the cler. Presbyterians. Nor can we blame gy whom he superintended are still them for this. For had they felt it preserved, and breathe the same right to make a compromise at all, spirit of piety and peace which is how could they trust such men as so manifest in his other works. In they had to deal with, or be sure October, 1665, he tells them “of that Leighton would not be duped the resolution he had taken of re- by his own partners. They might tiring from this public charge; and well say, 'timeo Danaos et dona that all the account he could give of ferentes.' Men whose dealings the reasons moving him to it, was with them at one time were by briefly this; the sense he had of his means of thumb-screws, and bands own unworthiness of so high a sta- of ruffianly soldiers, and at another tion in the church, and his weariness of the olive branch of peace, could of the contentions of this church, not be sincere. They were sure which seemed rather to be growing that ulterior measures were contemthan abating.” Of the first reason plated somewhere or other, if not it is not wrong to say that he should by Leighton, at Edinburgh, if not have let it influence him, if at all, be there, at London. Episcopacy, fore he entered the office. He is though it had come into Scotland earnest for a strictness of discipline, with blood, had put but one foot upwhich no hierarchical church has on the soil. It was as yet very ever adopted, at least in modern much without a form of prayer, times. He speaks in 1667 “ of the without surplices, without godparents gross and almost incredible igno- and the cross in baptism, without rance of the common sort, under so holidays, without re-ordination. But

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