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tablished. And not only so, but coming from the latter, during the the explanations which we have sickly season, are detained in quargiven show a most important differ. antine-say ten days. Suppose now ence between them; a difference that New York enacts a law to the not accidental but essential ; a dif- effect, that the citizens of South ference in nature and kind, not Carolina shall be entitled to all the merely in degree. The right of en. privileges and immunities of cititrance into a state, we have shown, zens in New York; no man would exists in the citizens of that and think of saying, that such a law would other states by an absolute title, exempt the citizens of South Carobut subject to be regulated in the lina from the operation of the quar. manner of its exercise ; now the qua. antine law. Yet it must, if the two rantine law regulates the exercise, are in conflict; for of two laws, prothe law of exclusion denies the title. ceeding from the same authority, The one says—So enjoy your own the provisions of which clash with right as not to injure another's ; each other, that which is last enacted the other declares-You have hence- repeals the other to the extent of forth no right at all. The one is the conflict. But if the last menproperly a law of the state, purpos- tioned law had found in existence ing the good of the whole, while it and force a previous enactment, to recognizes and respects the rights the effect that it should not be law. of each ; the other is an arbitrary ful for any citizen of South Carolina exertion by the state of physical or any specified class of citizens, force upon persons whom it disowns or any specified individual citizen of as members, and refuses to treat that state, to enter the state of New
Such a law, if it can York, and subjecting any such citibe called one, directed by a state zen found in the state to arrest and against its own citizens, is an act of imprisonment, there would be as litdetestable tyranny ; directed against tle doubt that that enactment would the citizens or subjects of a friendly be immediately repealed, and renation, or any class of them, is an main a dead letter upon the statute act of open hostility, unless justified book, by the mere force of the as done in self-defense in view of grant of privileges. And if those urgent necessity ; directed against privileges had been secured to the the citizens of a sister state in our citizens of each state in the other, federal Union, it abjures the primaby a mutual convention between the ry, essential covenant, on which two, the operation would be the that Union was formed and subsists, same ; except that the subsequent and violates the most solemn obliga. enforcing by New York of her pretions which it imposes.
existing law would be a gross violaTo bring our whole argument tion of her faith pledged in the treaupon this subject to a practical test, ty, and a just cause of war.* let us suppose New York and South Carolina to be separate and indepen
* We are obliged with the consent of dent states, the former having a law
the author to postpone the remainder of under which vessels and passengers of this article io next Number.-Editor.
even as men.
ADDRESS OF THE HON. JOHN COTTON SMITH.
The meeting of the Alumni of drawing a parallel between the strug. Yale College at the late commence- gle of the country for independence, ment was addressed by the venera- and ours for an education. In each ble Ex-Governor of Connecticut, case there was a lamentable defiJohn Cotton Smith, then upwards of ciency of means for the prosecution eighty years of age. By request of of the enterprise. Were her solthe committee, Professors Silliman diers poorly clad and as poorly fed? and Olmsted, he has furnished a What was our clothing but princicopy for publication in the New pally the coarse fabrics of the doEnglander, as follows:
mestic loom? And as to sustenance I meet you, my brethren, on the we were more than once, by the present occasion with no ordinary events of the war, dismissed and emotions. Those of us who re- sent into the country for subsistence. ceived the honors of this venerable Was she inadequately supplied with institution, more than sixty years arms and military stores? We were ago, are permitted by a kind Provi. also destitute, in a great measure, of dence to commune with our suc- the indispensable furniture of a col; cessors on this consecrated ground, lege; for instead of the splendid an object of our early reverence, array we now behold, if we except and endeared to us by many, very an air-pump, the residue of our apmany precious recollections. But paratus would be thought, at this with what diminished numbers do day, better fitted to provoke merriwe appear?
ment than to impart instruction.
Should it then be asked how our “ Rari nantes in gurgite vasto.”
country gained her independence, While we mourn the departure and and we our degrees ? Let it be ancherish the memory of the great swered, she triumphed through the majority of our collegiate contem- blessing of heaven upon the invinci. poraries, let us bless God that we ble spirit of her sons, led by her still live, and that in His infinite Washington, “himself a host !” goodness He has suffered us to live We prevailed by God's blessing on in a period of the world distinguish- our indefatigable efforts, under the ed by signal displays of His pow. auspices of the venerated Stiles, er and beneficence-a period fruit- himself, as he said of another, “ a ful of events bearing with mighty in- living, walking library.” From his fluence on the happiness and hopes rich stores of erudition he poured of mankind. Allow me to refer, for instruction into our minds, while by a few moments, to some of the in- the dignity and loveliness of his decidents of our collegiate course. portment, he took possession of our It occurred during the great contest hearts. I love to think of him. I for our national existence. We were rejoice that his memory is embalmnot in a condition to engage in the ed in a volume which does honor hazards of the field, yet we were alike to his name, and to our nationabundantly able to mark the progress al literature. Although we had no of events with intense solicitude, and resident professors, except one of to participate in the alternations of theology, yet the deficiency was hope and despair, as victory or de. in a good degree supplied by tutors feat attended its operations. I have preëminently qualified for the stanot unfrequently indulged myself in tion; two of whom, I am happy to perceive, still survive.* There un- We rejoice at the superior advantafortunately existed, at that period, ges afforded them, and rightfully certain regulations of a peculiar expect in return a proportionate elecharacter, not found, probably, in the vation of character for intelligence printed statutes of the college, but and usefulness. coeval with its existence,-such as I have said it has been our lot to the liability of Freshmen to per- live in an age fruitful of events form personal and menial services momentous in their bearing on the for members of a superior grade, present condition and future prosand, in addition to other acts of hu- pects of mankind. Time will not miliation, their subjection to the dis- permit me to enumerate them. Sufcipline of the Senior class! Most fer me however to say, we have withappily, under the auspicious sway nessed revolutions for good or for of the illustrious Dwight, and his evil unprecedented in the annals of distinguished successor, and their our race; which have shaken two justly celebrated associates, we have continents to their center, and the efseen this code of feudal homage and fects of which will be felt by reservitude wholly abolished, and the mote generations. intercourse of the students regulated We have not only witnessed the by the usual courtesies of civilized birth of our nation, but have been society. Under the same benign permitted to mark its growth to diinfluence, the system of instruction mensions, which may well excite has been greatly enlarged, embra- our own and the world's astonishcing, indeed, every branch of knowl- ment. edge appropriate to a university, We have beheld the rise and es. with numerous professorial endow. tablishment of free institutions, and ments, and all the appliances and the evidence, which experience affacilities requisite for the attain- fords, that they are abundantly adement of a thorough, a finished edu. quate to the government of an incation. Instead of a solitary build. telligent people, and in truth constiing and adjoining chapel, occupied tute the strength of all governments. by us, we behold a range of edifices, We have seen public opinion takwhich for number, magnitude, lo- ing high rank as an elementary cation, and solidity, and even beau- principle of political science, and ty of construction, are unsurpassed gradually advancing to a supremacy by any similar institution in our coun- which, if duly enlightened and wisetry ; with appurtenant buildings de- ly directed, must ultimately spread voted to chemical experiments, to the empire of freedom over the philosophical and astronomical ex- whole earth; a theory, however, ercises, to a mineralogical cabinet, which evidently demands the unito the preservation and exhibition versal diffusion of both religious and of the monuments of art which have intellectual cultivation. immortalized the genius of Trum- We have witnessed a great enbull, and lastly a spacious and su.. largement of the boundaries of huperb structure for the accommoda- man knowledge, and the introduction tion of the libraries appertaining to if not of new sciences, yet of new the college ; the whole constituting improvements with their nomenclaa highly ornamental appendage to tures, not a little startling at first to this beautiful city. What privile. scholars of a former century, but ges, denied to us, have been, and eminently beneficial in their effects. still are possessed by the more high. We have contemplated with unly favored sons of our Alma Mater! mingled satisfaction the advance* Hon. E. Goodrich and Hon. S. Bald.
and the attainment of high judicial interests of every being born in the distinction in the national and state image of God, wherever he may tribunals, contributing essentially to found. It is this broad and expan. elevate the character of the age. sive principle, now in operation
We behold the useful arts carried and encircling the globe, which in. to a degree of perfection, which spires the philanthropist with new utterly surpasses all former exam- hopes, and imparts to the Christian ple, particularly as exhibited in the sure evidence of the approach of diversified and astonishing opera- that blissful period, which the eye tions of steam on land and water; of faith beholds with unerring cerand in the no less wonderful pro- tainty and unspeakable delight. cess by which electricity is convert. My brethren, to have lived in ed into a vehicle of intelligence ! such an age forms, of itself, no unWe see lakes and rivers, and seas, enviable distinction ; and to have and widely extended territories, con- discharged with fidelity its incumnected by artificial streams and rail- bent duties must prove an unfailing ways. We enter our manufactories source of the richest consolation. and work-shops and perceive the Let what remains of life to us, who successful efforts of genius in abridg- are so near its close, be still devoted ing the labor of man; and when to the great end of our existence; there, we cast our eyes on fabrics, let our younger brethren justly apwhich are not excelled by the proud- preciate their high privileges, with est displays of European skill; and a full consciousness of their correthe thought forces itself upon our sponding obligations ; let us all cherminds, how many of our sister states ish more and more the ties which at the South owe, in no moderate bind us to this noble Institution and degree, the profitable cultivation of to each other, in the blessed hope their staple production, and main of being finally united with the socisource of their wealth, to the match- ety of glorified spirits in the presence less ingenuity of a northern citizen, of God and the Lamb. an alumnus of this college.
Finally, in addition to the scien. tific, literary, mechanical and other LITERARY NOTICE. improvements of the present age, we have cheering evidence, that Congregational Tracts.-A series it is emphatically the “age of be- of Tracts designed to illustrate the nevolence.” This heaven-born spirit nature and claims of Congregahas shown itself not only in sym- tionalism has been undertaken by a pathy for the unfortunate and a number of gentlemen in Fairfield readiness to relieve them, not mere. county, Connecticut, who are fully ly in charitable establishments (I competent to execute their task had almost said) as numerous and with ability. Three Tracts have diversified as human sufferings ; already been published on the folthese offices of humanity, creditable lowing topics : 1. What is Congreas they unquestionably are, have gationalism ? 2. Origin of Con. nevertheless been chiefly confined gregationalism. 3. Congregational to our own country, and to the bodi- Councils and Associations. The ly wants of a short life ; but the friends of this system of church spirit to which I allude has mani polity will do well to give these fested its celestial origin in higher publications a wide circulation. Orand holier efforts—in endeavors to ders may be sent to A. H. Maltby, promote the temporal and eternal New Haven.