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place among the cities of America. She “Many humane provisions were esnever became, as her founder doubtless tablished by legislative authority." intended, the “mistress of the seas” in These provisions offered timely relief the Western hemisphere, or the capital to the unfortunate stranger, and exof a more powerful government than tended the hand of charity to the poor that of Massachusetts. And her aspir- generally. They stood between the ing inhabitants were under the neces- honest debtor, and his oppressive credsity of taking the humble name of itors, securing to him his rights and York, and reposing in safety for nearly liberty. They forbade cruelty to anitwo centuries under the shadow of the mals, and protected the poor Indian in old Commonwealth.

the quiet possession of his "planting“ The religious liberty of the Epis- grounds and fishing-berths.” copalians was left unharmed, and the Strict laws also guarded morals. privileges of citizenship were extended They frowned upon idlers,' “ tobaccoto all inhabitants.” They were not takers,” drunkards, gamblers, profane burdened with taxes except for county swearers, bearers of false news, slanand town purposes. But the province derers, extortioners, fornicators; and continued to be the battle-field of op- threatened with death, murderers, robposing political and religious theories. bers, burglars, traitors, blasphemers, And unprincipled itinerant preachers, adulterers, and other criminals. They taking advantage of the large liberty imposed strict regulations upon public enjoyed by the people, embittered the houses, and “expressly prohibited” strife by appealing to the prejudices of the various games and sports calcucombatants. The general court of lated to corrupt the young. Massachusetts finally required

all

Thus did Massachusetts shield the preachers to secure the approbation of morals of the rising generation, manifest four neighboring churches.

And as

a tender regard for the poor and defensemost places were destitute of the stated less, and open to all the fountains of inmeans of grace, every town was re- telligence, virtue, and religion. Talent quired to make provision for the sup- and genius, when associated with moral port of a pious minister.'

worth, were crowned with honors, And the cause of education, hitherto however humble their origin; for the neglected in Maine, received the atten

avenues to greatness and distinction tion of Massachusetts. She made it were closed to none.

Though she had the duty of every town, containing fif- her faults, no other commonwealth at ty householders, to employ a teacher that period did so much to encourage sufficient time to teach the children to general intelligence, protect innocence read and write. And she required ev- and virtue, and establish correct religery town of one hundred families to ious and moral principles among the provide a grammar-school, in which people.' York did not suffer at her young persons could be fitted for col- hand. Still her right to govern in lege. And town officers were directed Maine was often called in question. to have children catechised, and see that Repeated efforts were made by the they “had some trade, or were fitted for some useful calling." 2

youth of their towns be taught their catechisms,

and educated according to law." Williamson, 1 Williamson, i. 356.

i. 383, ? “In 1675, the selectmen of Kittery, Cape 3 As late as 1674, one Charles Potum, Porpoise, Scarborough, and Falmouth were presented to the grand jury, at York, for living presented by the grand jury in several indict- an idle, lazy life, without any settled employments, for not taking care that the children and ment.” Williamson, i. 381 4.

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heirs of Gorges to recover their lost the people.” But Mr. Dummer was a possessions. And they were success- devoted man, and well furnished for ful for a time; but the people petition- his work, and doubtless, led not a few ed the court of England to be permit- to Christ. Said Cotton Mather after ted to live under the government of his death, Massachusetts, and their request was "Our Dummer, the minister of finally granted; though Charles II. was York, was one of whom, for his exemin power, and the Episcopalians enjoyed plary holiness, humbleness, modesty, inthe royal patronage.? Puritan views, dustry, and fidelity, the world was not laws, and customs had gained too worthy. He was a gentleman well destrong a hold upon the people to be scended, well tempered, and well edueasily shaken off. A simple form of cated. ... He might have taken for the worship, free schools, and what would coat of arms, the same that the holy now be called severe, even cruel laws, martyr Hooper did prophetically, were their choice.

lamb in a flaming bush, with rays from About ten years after Massachusetts heaven shining on it.” Such a man extended her protection over Maine, would not fail to make converts and Mr. Shubael Dummer commenced his build up a church. As early as 1672, labors in York as a minister of the he organized the first church in York, gospel. He was a young man, having now the oldest church in the state. graduated at Harvard, six years pre- Its members were his spiritual chilvious, at the age of twenty. Some dren. How numerous they became durten years after he came to York, Dec. ing his ministry we have no means of 13, 1672, he was ordained, and preach- ascertaining. We have reason to suped his own sermon from the passage, pose that much love, joy, and peace, “ Return, O Lord, and visit this vine.” circulated in the veins of society in The first prayer was by the Rev. Mr. York, as the result of his labors; for Moody, of Portsmouth, and the charge Cotton Mather says, “ Though solicited by Rev. Mr. Philips, of Rowley. The with many temptations to leave his whole period of his ministry in York place, when the clouds grew thick was thirty years, commencing 1662, and dark in the Indian hostilities, and closing 1692.

was like to break upon it, he chose, But how little there could have been rather, with a paternal affection to stay to encourage him in his field of labor ! amongst those who had been so many The first settlers of the town were ad- of them converted and edified by his venturers, and it had been an asylum ministry.for excommunicated and itinerant min- But his field of labor, already blosisters, agitated by civil commotions, soming with piety and virtue, and and never enjoyed for any great length orderly and peaceful, was suddenly of time regular preaching. As far as thrown into confusion and laid waste, we can learn, everything was at loose and many of his little flock, either ends, except what was restrained by butchered or carried into captivity. civil law; and Cotton Mather informs One winter morning, in 1692, at the us, that Mr. Dummer“ spent very much season of the year when the people of his own patrimony to subsist among felt there was no danger of an attack,

the Indians, led by Catholic French1 The controversy about the right of possession in Maine was continued until Massachu

men (the bitter enemies of the Purisetts effected a purchase of the Province of Gorges, 1677, by paying his heirs, £1,250 stg. 3 The first records were destroyed when the Records of the first church in York.

town was burnt by the Indians.

tans), and coming stealthily on snow- own door, naked and in his blood, with shoes, surprised them, while around his face to the ground. Where “his their firesides, breakfast tables, or cold remains in solitude sleep the years family altars, before the more public away," we are not permitted to know, duties of the day commenced, killed for no stone, so far as I can learn, marks from fifty to seventy-five of them, and the place of their “last retreat.” But took about one hundred more, prison

“ These remains, this little dust, ers. The few who fled to the garrison

Our Father's care shall keep, ed houses, or were stationed in them,

Till the last angel rise and break were summoned to surrender; but

The long and dreary sleep." they replied, that they would “first shed the last drop of their blood.” I find the following lines dedicated Their bravery saved them. After de- to his memory, by his friend Cotton stroying the dwelling-houses on the east

Mather:side of the river, and the provisions of

"Dummer, the shepherd, sacrificed the people, the Indians beat a hasty re

By wolves, because the sheep he prized ; treat into the woods, fearing pursuit by

The orphan's father, church's light, the inhabitants of Piscataqua.

The love of heaven, of hell the spight; Hardship, suffering, and, in many in- The conntrie's gapman, and the face stances, death, awaited their poor cap- That shone, but knew it not, with grace. tives. Cruel treatment they received Hunted by devils, but relieved at the hands of their savage foes, ere, By angels, and on high received. half-starved, shivering with cold, they The martyred pelican, who bled, wended their weary, forlorn way

Rather than leave his charge unfed. through the snows of mid-winter to

A proper bird of paradise,

Shot, and flown thither in a trice. the “kennels" of their captors in the

Lord, hear the cry of righteous Dummer's wilderness. The first Sabbath after

wounds, they started on their sad journey, an

Ascending still against the savage hounds unfeeling red man, dressed in the That worry thy dear flock, and let the cry clothes stripped from the dead body of Add force to theirs that at thine altar lye.” their pastor, paraded himself before them, with mock dignity, and in deris- By the kindness of Mr. Sibley, libraion of a Puritan minister, — "a devil rian of Harvard, I am able to add the as an angel of light."

following facts about Mr. Dummer:Mrs. Dummer, who was one of the “Shubael Dummer, son of Richard captives, overcome by fatigue and ex. Dummer, was born at Newbury, Mass., posure, heart-broken with sorrow, soon Feb. 17, 1636. His father came from entered the dark valley to find her hus- England, in 1632, and settled at Roxband on the other side, where the bury.. Of his mother, Mrs. Mary " wicked cease from troubling, and Dummer, we find the following in the the weary are at rest.” He had taken Roxbury church records, in the handhis golden harp but a few days, when writing of the apostle Eliot: “She was she joined him and took hers.

a godly woman; but, by the seductions He was shot as he was about to start of some of her acquaintances, she was on horseback to make pastoral visits. led away into the new opinions in Mrs. His friends, who escaped by being in Hutchinson's time, and her husband rethe garrisoned houses, or on the west moving to Newbury, she there openly side of the river,' found him near his declared herself, and did also seduce

1 The Indians had no means of crossing the ? These verses, and the other quotations I river, so that the few who lived on its western have made from Cotton Mather, may be found Dank escaped unharmed.

in his Hist. of N. E., book vii. art. 15.

her husband, and persuade him to re- twenty he received his first degree (at turn to Boston." "I

Harvard), and at the age of twentyThe son of these parents (Shubael four became a preacher, and was adDummer) enjoyed the best advantages mitted a freeman of Massachusetts which the country afforded for receiv- Colony." (American Quarterly Regising an education. From his earliest ter, x. 241, 242.) years he was brought up under the He preached in Salisbury: probably ministry of one of the most eminent two years before he settled in York. scholars and Christians among the fa- The church there voted to secure his thers of New England (Rev. Thomas services. (Mass. Rec. vol. iv. part 1, Parker, of Newbury), and very proba- page 429.) His wife was Mary, daughbly was his pupil, and fitted by him for ter of Edward Rishworth. admission to college. At the age of

THE LOGIC OF CONGREGATIONALISM.

us.

BY REV. JOSEPH TRACY, D. D., BEVERLY, MASS. MESSRS. EDITORS: Your notice of not be written. It may be a mere unmy friend Punchard's History of Con- derstanding, by which they rely on gregationalism incites me to offer you each other as Christian brethren, acta thought on this subject, which I have ing together for these purposes. This entertained for many years, though I is all that is necessary to the mere behave never seen it in print.

ing of a church. Its well-being requires Mr. Punchard shows that there have also officers for spiritual and temporal been churches having that form of gove affairs : that is, elders and deacons. ernment and no other, from the earliest Wherever these are found, there is a ages. This is right, and true, and con- church, according to our definition, - a clusive; but it is more than sound logic Congregational church. permits our opponents to demand of As a man, unrighteously deprived of

his liberty and made a slave, does not We say that a company of believers, cease to be a man, so a church, unrightresiding in the same vicinity, associated eously subjected to a hierarchy, does and statedly meeting for Christian or- not cease to be a church; and as, when dinances, worship, and instruction, is a many slaves are chained together in a Church of Christ. The covenant by “coffle” for more easy government, which they are associated may or may each enslaved man is still a man, so

when many churches are coffled to1 Richard Dammer, the father of Shubael, gether for the same purpose, each is was born about 1599, at Bishopstoke, Hants, still a church. Nor does it alter the England; second son of John. He came over

case, if the enslaved men, or churches, in the Whale from Southampton, arriving May 26, 1632; settled at Roxbury, moved to Boston, 3 The “inhabitants of ye new toune (now then to Newbury; was Assistant in 1635 and Amesbury) at Salisbury" petitioned the Gen'36; favored Wheelwright and was disarmed, eral Court, the old toune" baving consented, 1637; sent home; came back in 1638 in the that the former be not charged for church supBevis; married (2d) in 1644, Frances, widow port at the latter, the latter being “in hand of Rev. Jonathan Burr, of Dorchester, who with Mr. Subaell Dumer.” The Court, 81 died Nov. 19, 1682, aged 70; by second wife May, 1660, judge that Mr. Dummer"

may

be had four children.

a man meete for that work."

do not know their rights, but submit to burden of proof ceases to rest on us. their enslavement willingly, believing It is for those who claim authority over that such a course is the best that they the churches, to prove the rightfulness can pursue.

of their claim, either by the express It is an old ecclesiastical maxim, words of Scripture, or necessary inferthat we are to receive as true, as a ence from them, or by the universal part of Christianity, what has been re- practice of Christians. If they fail to ceived always, everywhere, and by all do this, as they must, then CongregaChristians: quod semper, quod ubique, tional churches may rightfully disrequod ab omnibus.And, if rightly ap- gard their claims and assume the free plied, the maxim is as true as it is old. management of their own affairs. Congregationalism stands this test. It And this shows the true logical form has been practised always, everywhere, of our fellowship with Christians of and by all Christians. Always, every- other names. We do not, for example, where, and among all, Christians have acknowledge the body that calls itself met statedly, for religious purposes, “The Protestant Episcopal Church of and by mutual understanding among the United States” as a church of themselves, constituting congregations Christ, or as a church at all. We reof believers; and, as a general rule, gard it as a body containing many have had the two kinds of officers nec- churches of Christ, and apparently, essary for the“ well-being ” of a church, some congregations which, for want of

one kind to teach and administer or- Christian piety, can not be recognized dinances, and another to care for tem- as churches of Christ. We recognize poralities.

each congregation of believers in that That there have been such congrega- body as a sister church, with whom we tions wherever Christianity has pre- have fellowship spiritually, and with vailed, no one, probably, will deny. whom we are ready to exchange acts Indeed, it is difficult, if not impossible, of visible fellowship. to conceive how Christianity, as a liv

It is indeed well to show that Coning, practical system, can exist without gregational churches, understanding them.

and exercising, more or less perfectly, And this is all that, in absolute strict- their just liberties, have always existness of logic, we are bound to prove. ed. But, logically, it is enough to show We need not show that these churches, that whatever is essential to the being or any of them, have always enjoyed of a Congregational church is enjoined their freedom. It is enough for us to in Scripture, and has had, and still has, show that they have always existed. universal prevalence; so that if forms They may have been enslaved, and that have been only local, partial, temmade to accept their slavery without porary, should be laid aside, Congregaquestioning. Still, they have existed. tional churches, and such only, would There have been congregations of be- remain. lievers, who did not “forsake the as- The same can not be said of any othsembling of themselves together” for er form of church organization. Other worship and instruction, wherever and forms, by the mere fact of their existwhenever there has been a living Chris- ence, disprove each other's claim to tianity. And congregations of believ- universality. ers, so assembling, are, according to It would be easy to enlarge on this Scripture and our doctrine, Congrega- subject; but I attempt, for the present, tional churches.

only a hint for thinkers.

J. T. And here, in strictness of logic, the

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