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1836, when a majority of the North parish, however, have availed themParish, being dissatisfied with Rev. selves of the privilege of worship in Mr. Peckham, the pastor of the church the new house, paying a trifle towards at that time, voted to withdraw the the support of the minister. The fund from his support. This led to lit- funds, it may here be stated, in all the igation between Mr. Peckham and the parishes of Haverhill, except the East parish, which resulted in Mr. Peck- Parish, have been diverted, by majoriham's obtaining his full claims upon the ties, from their original intention, and parish. Tired, however, of the con- now support religious opinions entirely troversy, he asked a dismission, and re- the reverse of those of the proprietors tired from the pastorate among that of the town who donated them. This is people.

clear, in respect to the North Parish During these troubles, a Baptist soci- certainly, from the fact that money ety (Calvinistic) was organized in Plais- was early voted by the town expressly tow, and the town voted to relinquish for the purpose of supporting an “orits claims upon the ministerial fund of thodox minister.” If to support such the North Parish, to individuals of the a ministry in this parish, then unquestown, who chose still to be united with tionably in all of them. individuals of the North Parish, and In 1818, a parsonage house was some few families of the town of At- built, by subscription, for the use of kinson, who lived nearer to the Con- the minister. Recognizing the right gregational place of worship in Plais- of the people of Plaistow, as well as of tow, than to that in their own town. the North Parish, to an interest in the The institutions of religion have, since house, it was placed upon the line the dismission of Mr. Peckham, been dividing the two States, one part of regularly sustained by individuals from the house being in New Hampshire, these several towns, by voluntary sub- the other in Massachusetts. This loscription.

cation, however, was partly for the acJust before Mr. Peckham's dismis- commodation of the minister, that he sion, a new meeting-house was built by might be able legally to marry people proprietors, near the site of the old from both States at the parsonage. house, covering, indeed, some small The New Hampshire weddings were portion of the land on which the old in the north, and the Massachusetts in one stood. The North Parish claimed the south part of the house. the new house, and commenced a suit This parsonage, thus built by subin law to obtain possession, which last- scription, was also claimed by the ed several years, and was expensive to North Parish, after the dismission of both parties. It was finally decided Mr. Peckham, as exclusively parish by the Supreme Court of New Hamp- property. Rent was demanded of him shire that neither party could claim by the parish, for the short period that exclusive right, and that all of each, he occupied it after his dismission, who chose to avail themselves of the When he left it, each party put in a privileges of worship in it, could do tenant. The parish's tenant, however,

was ejected without violence, and the The fund has never been, as yet, house was held by an armed protector, restored to its original intended use, till Mr. Peckham's successor — the aubut has been employed, in part at least, thor of this article, and family - obtainto pay for occasional Universalist ed possession. No further effort, after preaching in a school-house of the par- this, was made in any way by the parish. Most of those composing the ish to regain possession, and it has ever


since been quietly occupied by the min- marriages was kept by Mr. Cushing, ister preaching in the new house. on the church books.

When, in 1728, the north part of the Rev. Gyles Merrill was ordained town of Haverhill succeeded in getting March 1765, and died April 27, 1801, set off as a distinct parish, by a vote in the 63d year of his age and the 37th of the town, the conditions annexed of his ministry. Fifty-six were adwere that they should determine, with- mitted to the church on profession, and in a month, where their meeting-house twelve by letter, and seventy owned should be located, and that they should the covenant, during Mr. Merrill's settle an “ orthodox minister ”as soon ministry, and four hundred and twenas possible. Such a minister was set- ty-five children were baptized. Mr. tled, and such ministers only have Merrill kept, on the church books, a preached to that people from that time record of the marriages solemnized by to the present. Funds were given for the him, by which it appears that he marsupport of such a ministry exclusively, ried three hundred and ninety-eight and yet, since 1836, they have been ap- couples. His usual fee was one dollar. propriated for the support of Univer- When continental money depreciated, salist preaching, showing how readily he received from eight to one hundred men will pervert such gifts, when in- dollars, as fee. The smallest sum reclined to do it, and when opportunity ceived was two shillings and four offers.

pence; the highest twenty-eight shilThere were no articles of faith lings. adopted by the church in North Haver- From the death of Mr. Merrill, in hill, at the time of its organization. 1801, to 1826, this congregation had no It had a covenant only, in form sub- settled minister, and the pulpit was stantially such as were the covenants supplied for the most part only in the of most, if not all the early Congrega- summer and autumn. From 1800 to tional churches of New England. It 1818 there were no admissions to the distinctly recognizes, however, the doc- church, and little if anything more trines of the Trinity, and of Christ as than the income of the fund was exProphet, Priest, and King,and obligates pended for preaching. The meetingits members to “shun all errors," from house became quite unfit for public which it is fair to conclude that its faith worship, and an interest in religious

Calvinistic. Articles of faith things had almost ceased to be felt. were adopted during the ministry of This was the time for the wicked one Rev. Moses Welch.

to sow his seed, and it ripened, in many Rev. James Cushing, the first minis- a heart, into Universalism. There can ter, was settled Dec. 2, 1730, and died be little doubt, that, if there had not May 13th, 1764, aged 59. During his been a fund to lean upon, the interest ministry, one hundred and eleven were in maintaining religious worship would added to the church on profession of have been greater, and the troubles their faith, and forty-five by letter. that followed would not have come. One hundred and ninety-nine owned During the period of interruption in the covenant and had their children the regular supply of the pulpit, from baptized, but were not received to full 1801 to 1824, there were only sixteen communion. Twelve hundred and children and seven adults baptized. fourteen children, of those owning From 1818 to 1860, one hundred and covenant, and of those in full com- sixty-four have been added to the munion, were baptized. No record of church ; by profession, one hundred


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and forty-five; by letter nineteen. Both the meeting-house and the parRev. Moses Welch was hired in March, sonage, by the commendable liberality 1824, as a regular supply. He contin- of the people, are now in an excellent ued to do this till about 1826, when he state of repair, and, for a minister who was installed. During his ministry, can be satisfied with a small and quiet from 1824 to 1831, thirty-seven were country parish, it affords one of the added to the church by profession, and pleasantest fields of labor that can be three by letter. Rev. Samuel H. Peck- found in New England. ham succeeded him, and was installed From 1827 to 1859 there were one in 1831, and remained till 1837. In this hundred and fourteen infant, and fiftytime, thirty-five were added to the two adult baptisms. During the period church by profession, and three by that Mr. Oliphant supplied the pulpit, letter. Since Mr. Peckham's dismis- every child of professing parents besion, this church and society have not longing to the church of suitable age had a settled minister. Rey. David was baptized. And all children of Oliphant supplied the pulpit from 1838 suitable age, of parents connected with to 1852, fourteen years, with no obliga- the churches to which he has ministions on his part, or that of the people, tered, numbering some more than four to continue the connection a single day; hundred and fifty, with the exception and with only the guaranty of a few of those of a single family, have been individuals, by word of mouth, for the baptized. It is his belief that a chief payment of the salary ; yet it was al- reason of the neglect of professing ways promptly paid. During his min- parents, in our pedobaptist churches, istry thirty-three were added to the to have their children baptized, is the church,- twenty-eight by profession, omission of pastors to instruct on this and five by letter.

subject, and to urge the duty. The Mr. Oliphant was succeeded by Rev. Congregational ministry is, undoubtCharles Tenney from March, 1853, to edly, to a great extent, at fault here. October, 1860. Under his ministry While some oppose Infant Baptism, thirty-three were added by profession, many regard it with indifference. It and thirteen by letter. Mr. Tenney is a divine institution, or it is not. If it was followed by Rev. Homer Barrows, is, it should be observed. If it is not, as stated supply, and he still ministers let it be repudiated. to that people at this date.



A STOUT octavo of seven hundred Miss Calkins began her historical pubs pages, with numerous engravings of lications in 1845. And the contrast representative men, quite throws into between this and her former history the shade the earlier volume with which of Norwich shows how such a work

grows upon one engaged in it.

We have here the history of a town1 History of Norwich, Connecticut, from its possession by the Indians to the year 1866. ship settled by a few proprietors unBy Frances Manwaring Čalkins. Published der Major John Mason, who came from by the author, 1866.

Saybrook, Conn., in 1660, with their pastor, the Rev. James Fitch, and laid flourished without government patronout their town-plot on a tract of land age, and without any State institution nine miles square, purchased for sev- for education, charity, or reform. enty pounds from the Mohegan Indi- But with this quiet development ans. By the researches of the author there has been true New England enamong public and private records, she terprise and activity, and we doubt has gathered most interesting details whether many towns can show such a concerning the early customs of the record of energy, promptness, and sucinhabitants in respect to worship, ed- cess. Miss Calkins notes the priority ucation, domestic matters, and civil of Norwich in various matters of pubconcerns ; the assignment of lands for lic interest, and might have done much homesteads and for pasture ; the inter- more if she had been willing to draw course of the people with the Indians, comparisons between her native place both in war and peace; the family his- and other towns in New England. tory of the first proprietors and their The first druggist in Norwich, and descendants; and the gradual growth probably the first in Connecticut, who of the settlement.

kept any general assortment of mediAfter sixty years the sheep pastures cines for sale, was Dr. Daniel Lathrop. which extended down to the tide-water He furnished a part of the surgical became desirable for other purposes, stores to the northern army in the and grants of land were made which French war. He imported his stock led to a new settlement at the “ Land- from England, and often received ing,” a mile or more from the original orders from New York. His was the center, and in process of time munici- only apothecary's shop between New pal changes have carved out several York and Boston, and orders frequentother towns from the original tract of ly came from the distance of a hundred nine miles square, and have made a miles in various directions. In 1749, business city of the Landing, while the Rev. Mr. Leavenworth, of Waterbury, town has ceased to be a place of trade came to Norwich on horseback for a and enjoys its tranquillity and ease. A supply of medicines for his people, cordon of thriving factory villages en- which could not be obtained any nearer circles the town, turning to good ac- home. count the extensive water-privileges The first turnpike in the United atforded by the Yantic and Shetucket, States was that opened between Norat whose confluence the city lies. wich and New London in 1792. The

By the descriptions here given of the first step toward medical organization history of the town, we are led to look in the State was made in Norwich in upon it as one of quiet development 1774. The first paper-mill in Connectand progress. The people have always icut was erected on the Yantic in 1776, been ready for the defense of the and gave employment to ten or twelve country in times of peril and of war, hands, who turned out thirteen hundred but their town has escaped invasion by reams a year; and that of the Chelsea domestic and foreign foes ; they have Manufacturing Co., at Greenville, was had their “great fires,” but the city has said, in 1860, to be the largest papernever been burned to ashes ; they have making establishment, not in the United suffered from disasters and panics in States only, but in the world, its annual common with the whole country, and product being then estimated at nearly yet the prosperity of the town has nev- half a million of dollars. Norwich er been dependent upon a single line of had two printing-presses and a weekly business ; and in its growth it has newspaper as early as 1773. The paper


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used was manufactured in the town, part of the first settlers, and for two
and school-books, hymn-books, and hundred years this spirit has been kept
pamphlets in great variety were pub- alive, while a missionary zeal has also
lished there. The next year there were flourished, which has led many of the
two book-stores, besides these printing sons and daughters of Norwich to de-
establishments. About the same time vote themselves to evangelical labors
the manufacture of clocks and watches in remote parts of the world.
began. Another important enterprise, This volume is creditable to the pa-
at that early day, was the manufacture tience, earnestness, and impartiality of
of cut shingle nails from old iron hoops, the compiler, who has evidently toiled
a branch of industry which was re- and written it as a work of love, and
vived with improved machinery in has treasured up a large collection of
1816. In 1790, a cotton-factory was facts which would otherwise soon have
established on the town plot, the fore- been irrecoverably lost. We notice
runner of the large and improved that since her previous volume she has
mills of the present day, and in numer- changed her opinion concerning the
ous other methods the enterprise and place of Miantonomoh's death, aban-
ingenuity of the inhabitants were dis- doning the traditional belief that he was

slain by Uncas at the place of his cap-
The citizens were also early interest- ture near the banks of the Shetucket.
ed in navigation, ship-building, and It is not a dry work, but readable
commerce, sending out privateers dur- and popular, abounding in matters of
ing the Revolutionary war, and subse- interest, not to the inhabitants of Nor-
quently having a considerable trade wich only, but to all the natives of the
with the West Indies. In 1817 a line town and their descendants.
of steam-packets commenced running It will be news to some of the pres-
to New York, and a small steamer was ent generation that, in 1774, when vari-
built at Norwich by one of its citizens. ous towns in Connecticut were making

The first banking institutions in Con- subscriptions for the poor in Boston, necticut were chartered by the legisla- Norwich sent on a donation of two ture in 1792, one of them located at hundred and ninety-one sheep, and Hartford, and the other at New Lon- afterwards a second installment of cash, don. Norwich applied for a charter wheat, corn, and a flock of one hunthe same year ; but the legislature, de- dred sheep. In 1779, “ a contribution clining to authorize more than one bank was made at Dr. Lord's meeting for for the county, persuaded the appli- the distressed inhabitants of Newport, cants from the two towns to unite in which have lately arrived from Provione institution, to be located at New dence, when the sum of three hundred London. Four years later, the Nor- dollars was collected for their relief." wich Bank was organized. The Nor- In 1775, many persons removed their wich Savings Society, established in families from Boston to Norwich, and 1824, is the oldest in the State, with a remained till after the evacuation of single exception, and has invested in Boston by the British, and in one of the bonds of the State and of the these families was the late Josiah United States more than two and a Quincy, then a child of three years, and quarter millions of dollars.

afterwards President of Harvard ColThe presence of the Mohegan In- lege. dians in the neighborhood gave oppor- Many interesting facts of church tunity for the development of pious history are recorded in the volume, care for their spiritual welfare on the and Miss Calkins betrays no partizan

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