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such a basis can be a true church of very properly grant the one and reChrist, nor its communion table, the frain from the other. With Christian table of Christ. No body can be en- fellowship, creeds have nothing to do titled to any recognition as a church any further than they may-indirectly of Christ, that does not admit the ne- help to decide the question of personal cessity of the new birth, the atonement, piety. But for church fellowship we the divine Saviour, and the hopeless must have a doctrinal test embracing state of the finally impenitent. These at least the doctrines already named. at least are necessary to the creed of So far we have not touched the quesa true church. And they are no less tion of the propriety of the division of necessary to the heart of the individual Christian churches into denomininaChristian. Nor can he give good evi- tions or sects. This depends mainly dence of piety who does not give evi- upon the terms of admission to the dence that these doctrines have a hold local church. That is, if no doctrinal upon his heart. Yet we do find that test be imposed upon candidates for adevidence, where they have not yet mission to any church, then all churches reached the intellect and the person will be alike in having no creed exdoes not think that he believes them. cept the belief of different members. A church must, however, be judged not Denominationalism will then either die by the esoteric character of its indi- out or become intensified in the minisvidual members, but by the exoteric try, with a tendency to clerical tyrbasis of its organization. It must be anny over the people. Probably debuilt on the true foundation not merely nominations will never cease to exist invisibly and spiritually, but visibly in the church militant. They will be and bodily. The individual Christian is divided by church polity, if not by to be judged by the state of his heart creed. But with this the subject beas shown in his words and his life. fore us has nothing to do. The pracA church is to be judged not by the tical question to us, as Congregastate of heart of its members, but by tionalists, is, shall we, with our free its own organization, its outward con- church polity, throw open the doors of forinity to the cardinal points of the our local churches to all who give satisgospel. Though not at all probable as factory evidence of piety, irrespective an actual case, yet we can easily im- of creed? As we receive members to agine a true church of Christ, no mem- our churches, shall we require assent ber of which is a real Christian. On only to the covenant, or shall we also the other hand, there might be a church demand assent to our Calvinistic artiorganization, every member of which cles of faith? This is a question demight be a true Christian, whom we pending very much on the view we should gladly welcome to our com- take of the ordinances. If Baptism munion, with which as a church we and the Lord's Supper are church orcould not consistently meet on terms dinances, that is, in the sense of perof fellowship. Permitting such indi- taining to the local church only, as our viduals to participate with us in the Baptist brethren say, so that no perordinances is simply an act of Christian son can receive them without becomfellowship due to all Christians as such; ing a member of some particular but if we participate with them when church, then we can properly have no they administer the ordinances, it use for creeds in admission to the becomes an act of church fellowship church. We can find no Bible andue not to Christians as such, but to chority for interposing a creed, save churches only. We may, therefore, simple belief in the Lord Jesus Christ,


between any Christian and the ordi- in Jesus, by virtue of that belief, is ennances of Christ's household. But if titled to Baptism and the Lord's Supper, we regard them as Christian ordinan- and no man or body of men may innoces, pertaining to the church general, cently exclude him from either. The and

agrec with our Methodist brethren, only creed required of the jailer and who, if we are rightly informed, ad- the eunuch was belief in the Lord minister both Baptism and the Lord's Jesus Christ. They however became Supper, without insisting on union with members by baptism of no particular the local church, then, a creed embody- church, but only of the visible church ing all our denominational articles of general. It is safe to follow the exfaith may very properly and wisely be ample of Paul and Philip. So much subscribed by all who enter for Christian and church fellowship: churches. Thus, while excluding from Let us now consider ministerial felthe ordinances none who love the Lord lowship. And what has been already Jesus, we shall yet preserve intact the said of church fellowship implies Calvinism of our churches, nor by nearly all that need be said of minisour Christian charity obliterate or ob- terial fellowship. It is evident that scure the distinctness of our denomina- we may not in any way recognize, as tional boundaries. Though, when prov- a minister, one whose church is not a identially thrown together and not church of Christ. Ministerial fellowstrong enough to maintain separate ship must extend just as far as church organizations, there can be no impro- fellowship, and no farther. We should priety in the union into one church, on be ready to exchange pulpits with, such broad terms as they can best and extend all other acts of fellowship agree, of Christians of all shades of to, any pastor of a church that we can belief, from Wesley and Taylor to properly recognize as a church of Luther and Calvin, yet it is doubtless Jesus Christ. The lack, then, of a better, in ordinary circumstances, that creed embracing - I will not say the the laws of elective affinity should pre- essential truths of the gospel, for all vail in organizing a local church, and truth is essential — but those truths those only be admitted who can sub- without which there is no gospel, must scribe to the same creed.

“ How can

exclude entirely from ministerial feltwo walk together except they belowship. To exchange pulpits, agreed ?" Christians uniting to- unite in conducting religious meetings together for the maintenance of the with, or in any form to recognize as a means of grace, and for mutual watch minister, one who denies the God-man, and assistance in their heavenward or eternal punishment, or the atone-' course, will do far better to be mu- ment, or regeneration, is to become tually agreed in faith as well as prac- ourselves recreant to the honor of tice. It is better, as a general rule, our Lord. that Calvinists should cluster together,

But there is a still closer and narand Arminians together. Such di- rower kind of ministerial fellowship visions are really more productive of exercised by and towards those of the harmony among Christians, than the same denomination only. Should we, mistaken effort of some to embrace all then, in the reception of new memforms of belief in one church organiza- bers to the ranks of the clergy, that tion. But, however this may be decided is, in the approbation and ordination by different churches in different cir- of ministers, require a specfic creed ? cumstances, the one point to be rigidly The answer seems obvious. It is ahinsisted on is, that creeds shall not ex- surd to expect Calvinists to ordain clude from ordinances. Every believer Arminians, or vice versa.

Just here, it seems to us, is the most may fight well in the army of the Lord, important use of a systematic creed. though he belong to no particular Heresies do not come into the church church, and though his creed may not through the laity, but through the be entirely conformed to the standard of clergy. Guard the pulpit from error, and sound doctrine. But it is essential that you ‘most effectually guard the church. his leader be one who understands and The great Unitarian defection in New will maintain all the truth. It is not England was of the ministry. It also enough for the minister that he possess crept in almost imperceptibly by coun- talent, learning, biblical erudition, or cils' ordaining men who only slightly fervent piety ; he must be also sound departed from the old landmarks of in the faith, or he will lead the church faith. Had the ministry stood firm, and astray. A slight laxity in the underrejected at the outset every candidate standing of one doctrine will give tone who was not clearly and decidedly to a man's whole ministry. It will unOrthodox, that defection must have dermine the foundations, and prepare been very much modified in its extent the way for more serious defection, till and influence, if not entirely prevented. by degrees his successors depart entireThe only security we can offer against ly from the gospel of Christ. The danheresy is to induct into the sacred office ger from this source is very great at only such men as will “contend ear- the present time. Too many confound nestly for the faith once delivered to the the different kinds of fellowship, and saints.” It was to the ministers Timo- with sophistical reasoning apply the thy and Titus that Paul addressed his laws of Christian fellowship to the most solemn admonitions against de- more limited conditions of church and parture from the doctrines they had ministerial fellowship. Indolence and been taught. Hold fast the form of fear of commotion influence us also to sound words,” is his injunction to Tim- a timid course. It is much easier to othy. We shall do well to make this say, “ The man is a good man, an able our invariable rule in the examination preacher, and will be likely to do good," of candidates for the ministry. Where and so let him pass along with his er“ the form of sound words” is retained, rors, than to take the decided stand rethe living truth may not always be quired by Paul, and reject the man that found; but where that form is rejected, is a heretic. We are not indeed to forthere it is certain the substance of truth bid him who casts out devils, because is also denied. Men who are unwilling he followeth not us, provided he followor afraid to use the strongest biblical eth Christ. Let him go with his own 'expressions in their statements of doc. denomination in peace and with a benetrine, without some modifying or limit- diction. But we should do all in our ing phrase of human device, are to be power to forbid the preaching of those distrusted. Their soundness in the faith who in any form reject Christ, receiving is to be seriously doubted. We may them not into our houses, neither bidnot with safety admit such men to the ding them God-speed. And, more than ministry. An error in a leader ap- this, we must not, at the peril of our parently very slight will work untold Puritan, Pauline faith, send forth to inmischief. It is not necessary that every struct and guide our churches men who private soldier should have the right even slightly depart from the ancient theory of war, or a completely correct symbols of apostolic doctrine. If the knowledge of military tactics; but a minister holds election, or native degeneral without these will be the ruin pravity, or a vicarious atonement, or of the army. So the true Christian eternal punishment in some modified


form only, his people will soon cease limit our fellowship. Bristling with to hold them at all. It is thus danger- five or twenty-five points, if need be, let ons in the extreme to admit to the pul- our Calvinistic creed stand sentry at pit the slightest deviations from the all our pulpit doors, but never let its strict standards of Orthodoxy.

Here terrors forbid approach to the commulet the creed control our action and nion table or the baptismal font.



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1841 Colpoy's Bay. Stephen King


1842 Leonard McGlashan


1842 Canada Presb. Ch. Samuel Finton


1842 James Vincent

Coventry, England 1842 Wisconsin. Edward Ebbs.


1843 Paris, C. W. William Lumsden

St. Catharines :

1833 Canada Presb. Ch. William F. Clarke.

London, C. W.

1844 Toronto. Thomas I. Hodgskin


1844 * Robert Robinson

Montreal, 1st Church 1846 Dresden. *John Bowles

Montreal, 1st Church 1845 Died. *Norman McLeod.


1844 Salt Lake, Utah. William H. Allworth


1845 Markham. Thomas Snell

New York State

1846 Died. Thomas Searight


1847 Thomas Bayne

Montreal, 2d Church

1846 Vermont. George G. Wickson


1847 Wilian Hay


1847 Scotland, C. W. Henry Lancashire

Montreal, 1st Church 1847 Kenneth M. Fenwick

Montreal, 2d Church 1847 Kingston. *Charles McKay

Montreal, 2d Church 1846 Died. John C. Geikie


1848 Sunderland, England. Francis H. Marling


1848 Toronto, Bond Street, Arthur Wickson, LL. D. . Toronto

1849 Toronto, Gr. Sch. John Wood

Montreal, ist Church

1851 Brantford. John McKillican

Vankleek Hill .

1851 Canada S. S. Union. John Fraser


1852 New Zealand, Robert K. Black

St. John's, N. B.

1852 Milton, N. S. George Ritchie

St. John's, N. B.

1852 Daniel McCallum

St. Andrew's, C. E. 1852 Warwick. James Hay


1352 New South Wales. E. A. Noble

Hamilton .

1853 Enoch Barker

Sheffield, N. B.

1854 Newmarket, C. W. Archibald Burpee

Sheffield, N. B.

1855 Yarmouth, N. S. John Campbell

Indian Lands

1855 West Arran, C. W. James Boyd

Montreal, 1st Church 1856 Philip Shanks


1856 Lanark. Malcolm McKillop


1857 Died. Robert G. Baird


1858 Michigan, Alexander McDonald

Montreal, 2d Church

1858 Montreal. Robert Hay

Scotland, C. W.

1859 Pine Grove. George A. Rawson


1860 Cobourg. Joseph V. Bryning .

Scotland, C. w.

1860 John R. Kean.

Inverness, C. E.

1861 Cornwallis, N. S. Robert Burchill


1861 Ind. Miss'y, Saugeen. Robert Brown


1861 Garafraxa. John Brown


1861 Benjamin W. Day


1861 Wroxeter. George Strasenburgh


1862 John G. Sanderson


1862 Oro. J. Malcolm Sunith

Scotland, c. w.

1862 Sonthwold, Charles Duff

Toronto, 2d Church 1862 Meaford. Alexander McGregor


1863 Brockyville. Richard Lewis


1863 Vankleek Hill. James Dongias

Toronto, 2d Church

1865 Lanark. J. A. R. Dickson

1865 London, C. W. Note.—Those marked thus (*) leit the Institute of C. E. previous to its amalgamation with


that of C. W. in 1845.

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Congregational Necrology.

Dea. JEDEDIAH BUSHNELL was in discussion, which he loved to a fault, – born in Keesville, N. Y., 21 Aug., 1798. whether pertaining to theology or politics, in When an infant, his parents removed to both of which he was perfectly at home, — Waitsfield, Vt. The town was then in its he seemed to delight in those strong, sharp infancy. A few settlers had made comfort- statements which, while true and clear if careable homes for themselves. The forests were fully examined, are nevertheless liable to beginning to fall rapidly before the sharpened misconstruction when not considered with steel, which the early inhabitants knew how precision and candor. to use effectively. Dea. Bushnell commenced He was a man of principle in an eminent life with these sturdy, noble pioneers. He degree. He examined every subject carefully had an iron constitution which yielded to no through the medium of the intellect. What fatigue or exposure till nearly threescore could not endure the probings of a sharp in. years and ten of service. He died on the 22d tellectual analysis received his rebuke. What of February last, at the age of 68 years, six seemed right and proper, thus viewed, that he months. He was an energetic, thrifty farmer. approved, regardless of the feelings of him. He provided for himself and family a com- self or others. The abstract rule of justice fortable and cheerful home, where all the and right was enough for him, in ordinary abundance which belongs to a well-supplied circumstances. When called upon to decide New England farm-house was rightly appre- some practical question, of a benevolent naciated and enjoyed. Necessities, comforts, ture for instance, neither his feelings simply, and innocent luxuries were mingled in due nor his apparent pecuniary ability at the time, proportion. The writer will never forget the led chiefly to a decision, but what, after relast Thanksgiving eve which he, with his flection, seemed right and desirable, — what family, spent at the Deacon's, where body would help man and honor God. One time and soul seemed feasted to the uttermost; was as good as another to preach benevolence the one not too much for the other. He en- or anything else to him. He always heard joyed all the good things that a bountiful candidly, and then took time for deliberation. Providence gave him, and “kissed the hand Dea. Bushnell was a man of remarkable of the Giver."

faith. He believed that God reigns in heaven In early life Dea. Bushnell yielded his and on earth. His trust was constantly in heart to God, and at the age of twenty united Him. Did events move prosperously with with the Congregational church at Waitsfield, him, it was to God he gave the praise. Did then in the twenty-second year of its existence, the storms of adversity beat against him, it and in its serenth year of the pastorate of the was still well; God allowed them for a wise late Amariah Chandler, D. D. The writer purpose; and he sought grace that he might once heard him say that he had thoughts of endure and profit thereby. entering the ministry, but soon came to the He experienced many trials. The wife of conclusion that he was not fit for the work. his youth was early taken from him. He

Eight years after uniting with the church, buried several children, some of them under he was chosen deacon. For nearly half a painful circumstances. One was drowned, at century he was a consistent and devoted mem- the age of nineteen. Another died while ber of the church, and for more than forty preparing for the ministry. Another was years an carnest and efficient standard-bearer killed in a skirmish in Arkansas, during the therein.

rebellion. At such times he could mount up In character he was entirely positive. He to the throne of God till a sight of the divine was bold and fearless in every respect. Every wisdom and goodness seemed to satisfy him. one might easily know where he stood, what When we knew that his heart was aching his opinions were, and precisely why he held with anxiety and sorrow, his countenance inthem. So bold and open was his nature that dicated that he leaned on one who helped to

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