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what their scandals and apostasy bereaved them of. But it is only Christ that hath deserved that our repentance through grace, and only grace, should reach these ends and benefits.

The sum of all is this: When we have abstracted the human satisfactions of the Papists from what God hath made our duty, and the condition of our salvation; or from what is due to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost from us as creatures, subjects, and delivered sinners by price and power, to be trained-up according to the methods and assistances of gospel-laws and grace; and so from what I am bound to do to satisfy my injured and endamaged neighbour, offended Governor, and the church of Christ, according to the institutions, and for the necessary and, by God and Christ, enjoined ends and interest of the gospel ; how narrow and useless will human satisfactions appear to be !

And thus I have gone through this task, as thoroughly as God's breaches on my family, my manifold diversions, great distractions, mean abilities, and slender furniture, and other hinderances, would admit of ; and with my closing words, and to my last gasp, (if sensible so long,) must I bewail the miserable state of church and world, that must be scandalized, disturbed, and divided by wanton fancies, prurient wits, proud hearts, and sinister designs, in having doctrines clouded or sophisticated with dark and doubtful words and phrases imposed on them.







For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you,

That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread : and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat : this is my body, which is broken for you : this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood : this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.—1 Corinthians xi. 23—25.

God hath exalted man above all creatures of the visible world, in giving him a being capable of religion, and thereby of eternal life and happiness in the enjoyment of Himself. And to the end that God may make himself glorious in making lost man happy, he hath in infinite wisdom and grace given us his written word, to be a perfect rule of that Christian religion by which we may obtain eternal life and happiness in God by Christ; in which word he hath not only revealed this glorious happiness to us, and “brought life and immortality to light through the gospel ;” (2 Tim. i. 10 ;) but also told us what gives us a title unto, and fits us for, and the way that leads unto, the full possession of it.*

And therefore what tongue can express the desperate madness and folly of those men who forsake the good "word of the grace of God,” (Acts xx. 32,) for a religion that hath no other foundation than the words of lying men? And such is the Popish religion, which, as it is Popish, is devised only by devils and men, to feed lusts, and to serve a carnal and worldly interest, and tends to the damnation of millions of souls.

Their doctrine of transubstantiation in the Lord's supper, which I am now called to bear witness against, is one of the chief articles of this religion ; and if this falls, their idolatrous worshipping their host, their most abhorred propitiatory sacrificing Christ in their Mass, their sacrilegious robbing the people of the cup, and a great part of their religion, must fall with it: and yet, by the grace of God, I shall in this ensuing discourse make it appear, that transubstantiation is such a hideous error, that the very nature and clear consequences of it do cry of the true Christian religion, as they cried of Jerusalem, “Rase it, rase it, even to the foundation thereof !” (Psalm cxxxvii. 7.)

I shall therefore fall immediately to my work, which is to prove two things :

1. That there is no transubstantiation in the eucharist or Lord's supper.

And take notice, that I do not question but the name “ eucharist hath been anciently, and may be still fitly, given to this sacrament; but I shall choose to call it, according to scripture, “the Lord's supper,” it being better known among us by that name.

2. That it is idolatry in the Papists to worship the consecrated bread, though they think it is turned into the body of Christ.

Now because in these words (with those in the three evangelists, Matt. xxvi. 26–28; Mark xiv. 22–24; Luke xxi. 19, 20, which I would be understood to take into my text) the institution of the Lord's supper is fully and clearly delivered from Christ to his church ; and because these words do carry us in a right line to the Author and nature and use and ends of this ordinance, and are the true standard by which we must try all doctrines and opinions and practices touching the Lord's supper; and also because our adversaries pretend to receive their doctrine of transubstantiation from Christ in these words ; I have therefore chosen them for the most proper subject of this discourse.

And herein I shall proceed in this method :

I. I shall briefly acquaint you with the true doctrine of the Lord's supper, taught by Christ in these words.

II. Acquaint you with the doctrine of transubstantiation, which the Papists pretend to receive from Christ in these words.

III. Prove that there is no transubstantiation in the Lord's supper.

In his quæ aperte posita sunt in scriptura, inveniuntur illa omnia quæ continent fidem moresque vivendi.- AUGUSTINUS De Doctrina Christiana, lib. ii. cap. 9. “ Amongst those things which are clearly revealed in the scripture, are found all those which relates to belief and the conduct of life."-Edit.


IV. I shall make application, and therein prove the second proposition, namely, “That it is idolatry in the Papists to worship the consecrated bread, though they think it be turned into the body of Christ.”

I. I shall give you a brief and plain account of the doctrine of the Lord's supper, taught us in these words, in six particulars, which I shall further improve in the following discourse.

1. Jesus Christ hath in infinite wisdom and love appointed bread and wine for this sacrament. This is evident by those words, “ Jesus took bread,” and, “ He took the cup,” wherein was “the fruit of the vine :" (Luke xxii. 18 :) our dying Lord being about to institute and administer the Lord's supper, in order thereunto he solemnly took bread and wine.

2. It is the will of Jesus Christ that bread and wine be blessed and consecrated by the ministers of the gospel.This bread and wine must be changed from that common use which they had before consecration, by being blessed to a holy and spiritual and sacramental use. This appears by our Saviour's practice, recorded in the text : “ Jesus took bread and blessed it; and he took the cup, and gave thanks.” The word ev hoyoas, translated “ blessed,” and eux apothoas, translated “gave thanks,” do here signify the same thing, and do assure us, that Christ blessed the bread and wine ; which obligeth all ministers in this case to do the same ; and therefore saith the apostle, “ The cup of blessing which we bless," and, “ The bread which we break;” (1 Cor. x. 16 ;) meaning "the bread of blessing, which we bless and break;” for both were blessed by our Saviour, and are to be blessed by his ministers, and are thereby made blessed bread and blessed wine.

3. It is the will of Jesus Christ that this blessed bread be broken by his ministers.—This was a holy rite or action of Christ, recorded by the three evangelists, and by St. Paul in the text, which tells us, He blessed the bread, and brake it ;" from which sacred rite expositors conceive that this sacrament is called “ breaking of bread.” (Acts xx. 7.) And it is clear, that our Saviour made this bread, as thus broken, to signify, “the body of Christ, which is broken for us :” and therefore saith the apostle, It is broken bread,” that is, “ the communion of the body of Christ.” (1 Cor. x. 16.) And though I cannot stay to quarrel with the Papists for lighter matters, yet take notice of their bold superstition in affronting Christ herein, by making their bread into little round wafers, and not breaking it, but putting it whole into the mouths of the communicants.

4. Jesus Christ hath appointed that this blessed bread and blessed wine be administered to believers.—This is clear by our Saviour's example mentioned in the text, which tells us, that “the bread which he took, and blessed, and brake, he gave to his disciples ;” and, “The cup which he took and blessed, he gave to them.” Jesus Christ administered the blessed bread and blessed wine in this sacrament.

5. It is the command of Jesus Christ that believers do take and eat and drinkthis blessed bread and blessed wine.--For Christ gave and administered them with a command to take, and eat, and drink" them. The words are clear: “Take, eat ;” “Drink ye all of it ;” which command the disciples obeyed, and did take, and eat, and drink the blessed bread and wine which Christ


them. And so we see this


blessed bread and wine passing from Christ to his disciples in the Lord's supper, and eaten and drunk by them. And therefore, Christians, be sure to hold fast these two things in the Lord's supper :

(1.) Never yield to part with the bread and wine out of the Lord's supper.—For they are blessed : “ Destroy them not; for a blessing is in them.” (Isai. lxv. 8.) All the blessings that come from the infinite love of God in Christ by the covenant of grace, for the salvation of believers, are in this blessed bread and blessed wine ; and if ye lose the bread and wine, ye lose those blessings as conveyed by them.

(2.) Take and eat and drink this bread and wine, as the bread of blessing and as the cup of blessing.–Take the blessing that is offered with them ; for it is the blessing that makes this glorious feast of the Lord's supper.

6. Jesus Christ hath declared the use which this bread and wine are blessed and consecrated unto ; in these words : “ This is my body," or, “This is my body which is given,” or “broken, for you.” “ This cap is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many,” &c.; or, “ This cup

is the new testament in my blood.” These words declare two main uses whereunto this bread and wine are blessed and consecrated :

(1.) To be sacramental signs, to signify and represent to us Jesus Christ crucified, and all the benefits of his death.For the words do clearly speak of Christ crucified, and that with respect to us : “ This is my body, which is broken for you ;” “This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.” And by faith, whereby the heart doth assent to the truth of these words, we do in this ordinance discern the Lord's body broken for us, and his blood shed for us, and have our souls filled and suitably affected with the holy knowledge and remembrance and contemplation of Christ crucified for us.

(2.) To be a seal to confirm the new testament or covenant of grace, whereby Christ and all the benefits of his death are conveyed to believers.

-This appears by these words, “ This cup is the new testament,” &c. ; and by the apostle's explication of the words, “This is my body," “ This cup is my blood : The

сир of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ ?” And, “ The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ ?” (1 Cor. x. 16 :) teaching us plainly, that by this blessed bread and wine there is a communication of the body and blood of Christ, and of all the benefits of his death, which believers are made partakers of in the Lord's supper. And therefore we are commanded to take and eat and drink this blessed bread and wine, for this use also ; which we do, not only by seeing Christ crucified as here represented to us, but also by accepting and receiving and feeding upon him by faith as he is here offered to us, to be the most glorious feast of our souls. And although it is the great duty of believers to see and feed on Christ crucified, as revealed and offered to us in his word, and by other ordinances, yet this is proper and peculiar to this ordinance,—for believers to see and feed upon him, as he is represented and offered and given in the appointed use of bread and wine.

And thus I have given you a plain and brief account of the doctrine of the Lord's supper, taught us by Christ in these words ; and for your

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confirmation in the truth thereof, I shall commend three things to your serious consideration :

1. That for the matter of this feast, the Papists cannot with their transubstantiation declare it to be greater or more or better than we do without it.—For we say, “Here is Christ and all that is purchased by bis blood; here is all that is revealed and conveyed to us, from the infinite love of God, by the covenant of grace ; here is God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost in covenant with us, to pardon our sins, and to bring us, through holiness, unto eternal life and happiness in heaven.”

2. For the guests or communicants, we declare them to be the holy society of true believers, who are in union with Christ as his blessed bride and spouse and members.

3. We further declare, that all the glorious things of this feast are 80 far really present with these guests, that their souls do truly feed upon them, and are feasted with them.—But there is no necessity of a local presence of the objects of the soul with the faculties, to make up this feast ; but believers are here feasted by the remembrance of Christ's death, which is above one thousand six hundred years past, and by their hopes of glory in heaven, and at the day of judgment, which is to come ; and in seeing by faith the crucified and glorified body of Christ in that place and order which the scriptures reveal it to them, though his blessed body be at a local distance from them. And so, according to this doctrine, you see sufficient reason in all thankfulness to acknowledge, that the Lord's supper is such a feast as is for the honour of the great Jehovah, to entertain his beloved children and friends withal on earth, till he call them to feast for ever with him in heaven, without the use of bread and wine.

II. I proceed to acquaint you with the Popish doctrine of transubstantiation, which the Papists pretend to receive from Christ in these words.This transubstantiation is declared in the council of Trent thus : “ That by the consecration of the bread and wine, there is made a conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ, and a conversion of the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood, which conversion the Catholic church doth fitly. and properly call “transubstantiation.' And if any shall say, that in the sacrament of the eucharist, the substance of the bread and wine do remain, and shall deny this wonderful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the blood, of Christ, the species of the bread and wine only remaining, which conversion the Catholic church doth very fitly call “transubstantiation ; ' let him be accursed.” *

But, saith Solomon, “As the bird by wandering, as the swallow by flying, so the curse causeless shall not come : (Prov. xxvi. 2 :) and therefore “let them curse, but,” Lord, “ bless thou.” (Psalm cix. 28.) For, in defiance of their brutish execrations, I do with detestation deny this monstrous and blasphemous doctrine ; and do therefore proceed to the

III. Third particular, to prove that there is no transubstantiation in the Lord's supper.-—Which I shall prove by these following arguments ::

Concil. Trident. sess. xiii. cap. iv, can. 2.


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