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This grace of God not only offers salvation, but effects it. As it saves all, who receive it, from wrath and condemnation: so it likewise, effectually, teacheth us "that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, Iwe should live soberly, righteously, and godly in "this present world." "Looking for that blessed "hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God,


and our Saviour Jesus Christ; who gave himself "for us to redeem us from all iniquity, and to purify us unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good "works."

P. clxxxix. 1.7. To prove, &c." This view of

Tit. ii. 11-14.

To prove that peace with God was now obtained for the 'whole human species, through the precious blood of Christ, he represents Adam as "the figure of him that was to come," that is, a type of Christ: he then describes the analogy between


the first and second Adam, by declaring that the former brought 'death upon all men, and the latter restored all to life, that 'universal sin and condemnation were the consequence of Adam's 'disobedience, and universal righteousness and pardon the effect ' of Christ's obedience, "As by the offence of one, judgment " came upon all men to condemnation, even so by the righteous "ness of one, the free gift came upon all men to justification "of life; for as by one man's disobedience many were made


sinners, so by the obedience of one, shall many be made rightecus." The sin of Adam and the merits of Christ are here pronounced to be co-extensive; the words applied to both are 'precisely the same; "Judgment came upon all men," "the "free gift came upon all men."-" Many were made sinners,” "Many were made righteous."-Whatever the words "all men" " and "many" signify, when applied to Adam, they must signify "the same when applied to Christ. It is admitted, that in the ⚫ former case the whole human race is meant; and consequently ' in the latter case the whole human race is also meant.

the parallel between Adam and Christ, and the effects of Adam's disobedience, and of the Saviour's obedience, as drawn by the apostle, is given by many commentators: but it is liable to insurmountable objections; especially it most clearly admits, that the righteousness of one came upon all men "to justification of life:" and how then can universal salvation be denied? Indeed his Lordship's words, if rigorously interpeted, might seem to admit this consequence: 'Universal righteousness and pardon, the effect of Christ's obedience.' But the passage itself plainly suggests another interpretation. "If by one man's offence death reigned by one: "much more shall they, who receive abundance of grace,” (την περίσσειαν της χάριτος,) and of the gift "of righteousness, reign in life by One, Jesus "Christ." Here, not all men are spoken of, but they alone who, "receive this abundant grace, and the


gift of righteousness;" that is, true believers exclusively; for others do neither receive Christ, nor his grace, nor the "gift of righteousness," or justifica-, tion. The apostle appears to me, to contrast the loss sustained through Adam's fall, by all, who are in him, as his descendants by natural generation; with the vastly superior and additional advantages enjoyed, by all, who are "in Christ," as true believers, by regeneration, and as partaking of his Holy Spirit. "Of him are ye in Christ Jesus."? "There is no condemnation to them, who are in "Christ Jesus, &c."3 "If any man be in Christ,

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Rom. v. 17. 2 1 Cor. i. 30.

Rom. viii. 1.

"he is a new creature." As, however, this does not materially affect the argument, I shall not insist upon it. His Lordship, I am persuaded, does not intend universal salvation; and to the universality of redemption, in the sense above explained, I do not object.


P. cxc. l. 15. " Nay, we, &c.' This argument is equally conclusive for universal salvation. How can grace much more abound; if the effects of Adam's sin extends to all, but final salvation is 'confined to a part only of mankind?' It therefore proves too much, which shews, that it is not conclusive. Grace much more abounds, to those who receive, by faith, the abundance of the grace and are in Christ Jesus; but "how shall they escape "who neglect so great salvation?

P. cxci. 1. 4. 'When some, &c.'3 It certainly was not the work of God, that those Jews should believe in Christ, concerning whom he had decreed,

1 2 Cor. v. 17.

Nay, we are even told, that "where sin abounded, grace ❝ did much more abound:" but how can this be, if sin extends

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⚫ to all, and grace is confined to a part only of mankind?'

"What shall we do,

3 'When some of the Jews asked Jesus, "that we might work the works of God?" he answered, “This " is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent." 'If God had decreed that the Jews should not believe, it could 'not have been said, that it was his work, that they should ' believe on him whom he hath sent. Upon another occasion 'Christ declared to them, "These things I say, that ye might be "saved:" "How could Christ endeavour to promote the salva* tion of men, in opposition to the decree of his Father, whose 'will he came down from heaven to fulfil ?'

that they should not believe. Commentators indeed generally agree, that "the work of God," in the text referred to, (being an answer to the question of the Jews, "What shall we do, that we might work "the works of God?") signifies, that work, or act of obedience, which God required of them, and would accept; and without which all other works would be rejected. "This is my beloved Son-Hear 66 ye him:""This is the work," (most acceptable in "the sight of God,) "that ye believe on him, whom " he hath sent." There is, however, nothing said about these Jews, or the divine decree respecting them. It was their duty to believe, and had they truly believed, they would have been saved. "These "are revealed things, which are for us:" but who are, or who are not, decreed to salvation, is "a secret thing which belongs to God," of which we can know nothing, except by the event. Did ministers,2 who believe the doctrine of the divine decrees, really know what those decrees were; they could not consistently preach to those, concerning whom they 'knew it was decreed, that they should not believe,


in order that they might be saved:' but as they know nothing concerning this; they must adhere to the revealed truth and will of God; and, really loving all men with cordial good-will, and praying for the salvation of all, they must address them as sinners, and invite them to partake of salvation : and God will give what success to their labours, he sees good. It may, however, be said, that, if such

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decrees exist, our Lord knew what they were, though we do not. But, as Man and as a Preacher, he has left us an example, for our imitation. It may indeed be supposed, he knew, that some whom he addressed, were "chosen unto salvation." Probably, Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathea, were present, when he spake the words referred to. In general, he used proper means for the salvation of those who heard him.-But, supposing no such decree exists, how does this alter the case? Did not our Lord foreknow, who would; and who would not, believe? Who would, and who would not, be saved? In 'endeavouring to promote the salvation of those,' who he foreknew would not be saved; he would have acted as much in opposition to his own foreknowledge; as, if a decree had existed, he would have acted in opposition to that decree. But, doubtless, in what he said and did, he did not act in opposition to either the one or to the other. As for us, we take it for granted, that God has some people,' in our congregations, in the same sense, in which he had "much people" at Corinth. We are charged by the bishop when ordained priests, to seek for Christ's sheep 'that are abroad, and for his children, who are in 'the midst of this naughty world, that they may 'be saved through Christ for ever." And we have no fear of being condemned for opposition to a secret decree, while diligently obeying a revealed and express command.

P. cxci. 1. 19.

"The Jews, &c." Had the Jews

1 John v. 34. 2 Acts xviii. 10.

3: Ordination service.


The Jews had a power of understanding and believing, and

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