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Present tasks can only be clearly seen and worthily performed in the light of long experierce; and that liberal acquaintance with History which, under a monarchical government, might safely be left as an ornament and privilege to the few, is here the duty of the many.

The present work aims merely to afford a brief though accurate outline of the results of the labors of NIEBUHR, BUNSEN, ARNOLD, MOMMSEN, RAWLINSON, and others — results which have never, so far as we know, been embraced in any American school-book, but which within a few years have greatly increased the treasures of historical literature. While it may have been impossible, within our limits, to reproduce the full and life-like outlines in which they have portrayed the characters of ancient times, we have sought, with their aid, at least to ascertain the limits of fact and fable. With but few exceptions, and those clearly stated as such, we have introduced no narrative which can reasonably be doubted.

The writer is more confident of justice of aim than of completeness of attainment. No one can so acutely feel the imperfections of a work like this, as the one who has labored at every point to avoid or to remove them; to compress the greatest amount of truth into the fewest words, and while reducing the scale, to preserve a just proportion in the details. To hundreds of former pupils, who have never been forgotten in this labor of love, and to the kind judgment of fellow-teachers - some of whom well know that effort has not been spared, even where ability may have failed — this Manual is respectfully submitted.

BROOKLYN, N. Y., April, 1872.

230

39.

12.

18.

PART II.-THE AFRICAN NATIONS.

Geographical Outline of Africa.
History of Egypt.

(a) The Old Empire.

(6) The Shepherd Kings.

(C) The New Empire.

Religion and Ranks in Egypt.

History of Carthage.

50.
31.

55.

61.

66.

BOOK II.

The Persian Empire, from the Rise of Cyrus to the Fall of Darius.

Career of Cyrus.

Reign of Cambyses.

Organization of the Empire by Darius I.

Invasions of Europe under Darius.

The Behistan Inscription. .

Invasion of Greece by Xerxes. .

73.
76.

79.

83.

87.

88.

.

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II. HISTORY OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC.

FIRST PERIOD. Growth of the Constitution.

Laws of the Twelve Tables.

Capture of Rome by the Gauls.

260.

265.

269.

SECOND PERIOD. Wars for the Possession of Italy.

First Samnite War.

Latin War, and Battle of Vesuvius.

Second Samnite War.

Third War with Sampites and the Italian League.

War with Pyrrhus, King of Epirus.

Colonies and Roads.

274.

271.

275.

276.

278.

279.

282.

THIRD PERIOD. Foreign Wars.

283.

First Punic War.

284.

War with the Gauls. .

286.

Second Punic War, and Invasion of Italy by Hannibal.

287.

Battles of the Trebia, Lake Thrasymene, Cannæ.

288, 289,
Wars with Antiochus the Great; with Spain, Liguria, Corsica, Sardinia,
and Macedon. .

293.

Third Punic War.

291.

Subjugation of the Spanish Peninsula.

295.

296.

FOURTH PERIOD. Internal Commotions and Civil Wars.

Reforms Proposed by the Gracchi. .

Jugurthine Wars, and Rise of Marius.

Defeat of the Teutones and Cimbri.

Servile Wars in Sicily. .

297.

299.

302.

303.

PAGB

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MAPS.

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