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Present tasks can only be clearly seen and worthily performed in the light of long experience; and that liberal acquaintance with History which, under a monarchical government, might safely be left as an ornament and privilege to the few, is here the duty of the


The present work aims merely to afford a brief though accurate outline of the results of the labors of NIEBUHR, BUNSEN, ARNOLD, MOMMSEN, RAWLINSON, and others results which have never, so far as we know, been embraced in any American school-book, but which within a few years have greatly increased the treasures of historical literature. While it may have been impossible, within our limits, to reproduce the full and life-like outlines in which they have portrayed the characters of ancient times, we have sought, with their aid, at least to ascertain the limits of fact and fable. With but few exceptions, and those clearly stated as such, we have introduced no narrative which can reasonably be doubted.

The writer is more confident of justice of aim than of completeness of attainment. No one can so acutely feel the imperfections of a work like this, as the one who has labored at every point to avoid or to remove them; to compress the greatest amount of truth into the fewest words, and while reducing the scale, to preserve a just proportion in the details. To hundreds of former pupils, who have never been forgotten in this labor of love, and to the kind judgment of fellow-teachers-some of whom well know that effort. has not been spared, even where ability may have failed-this Manual is respectfully submitted.

BROOKLYN, N. Y., April, 1872.

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Triumvirate of Antony, Cæsar Octavianus, and Lepidus.

Antony defeated at Actium; Octavianus becomes Augustus.

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