Algorithmic Composition: Paradigms of Automated Music Generation

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Springer Science & Business Media, 28 août 2009 - 287 pages
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Algorithmic composition – composing by means of formalizable methods – has a century old tradition not only in occidental music history. This is the first book to provide a detailed overview of prominent procedures of algorithmic composition in a pragmatic way rather than by treating formalizable aspects in single works. In addition to an historic overview, each chapter presents a specific class of algorithm in a compositional context by providing a general introduction to its development and theoretical basis and describes different musical applications. Each chapter outlines the strengths, weaknesses and possible aesthetical implications resulting from the application of the treated approaches. Topics covered are: markov models, generative grammars, transition networks, chaos and self-similarity, genetic algorithms, cellular automata, neural networks and artificial intelligence are covered. The comprehensive bibliography makes this work ideal for the musician and the researcher alike.

 

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Table des matières

Introduction
1
References
6
Historical Development of Algorithmic Procedures
7
22 Development of Symbol Writing System and Numeral System
9
23 Much Ado About Nothing The Development of the Zero
13
24 The Formalization of Thinking Processes
15
25 A Truth Machine from the 13th Century
17
26 Early Approaches to Algorithmic Composition
21
66 Lindenmayer Systems in Algorithmic Composition
148
661 Mapping Strategies of Different Lindenmayer Systems
149
67 Synopsis
153
References
155
Genetic Algorithms
157
72 Genetic Algorithms as Stochastic Search Techniques
158
73 Genetic Programming
161
74 Genetic Algorithms in Algorithmic Composition
164

27 A Utopia of an AllEmbracing Representation of Knowledge
26
28 Calculating Machines
28
29 A New Numeral System for Automated Calculations
33
210 Replacing the Mechanistic Determinism
34
211 Language and Music Generators A Book of Books
36
212 From the Loom to the Analytical Engine
39
213 The Implementation of Logical Operations
44
214 On Formally Undecidable Propositions
45
215 From Census Collector to Chess World Champion
48
216 Automata and Computability
58
217 The Model of a Universal Computer
61
218 Programming
62
219 The Computer in Algorithmic Composition
63
References
65
Markov Models
67
31 Theoretical Basis
68
32 Hidden Markov Models
69
33 Markov Models in Algorithmic Composition
71
331 Alternative Formalisms
75
34 Hidden Markov Models in Algorithmic Composition
77
341 A Hierarchical Model
78
342 Stylistic Classification
80
35 Synopsis
81
References
82
Generative Grammars
83
41 Generative Grammars as a Model of the Theory of Syntax
84
411 The Chomsky Hierarchy
87
412 Grammatical Transformation
90
42 Generative Grammars in Algorithmic Composition
91
421 Musical Analysis by Generative Models
93
422 Folk Music and European Art Music
96
423 Music Ethnology
99
424 Bol Processor
101
425 Jazz
106
426 Grammatical Inference
112
43 Synopsis
117
References
118
Transition Networks
121
51 Experiments in Musical Intelligence
122
52 Petri Nets
127
521 Petri Nets in Algorithmic Composition
128
53 Synopsis
129
References
130
Chaos and SelfSimilarity
131
62 Strange Attractors
134
63 Fractals
135
64 Lindenmayer Systems
137
641 Forms of Lindenmayer Systems
139
65 Chaos and SelfSimilarity in Algorithmic Composition
144
652 Chaotic Systems
146
741 Analogies to the Process of Composition
165
742 Varieties of Genetic Operations and Fitness Ratings
167
743 Limits of Genetic Algorithms A Comparison
170
744 Rhythmic Generators
173
745 Applications of Genetic Programming
174
746 Interactive Systems
176
747 Artificial LifeForms
180
75 Synopsis
182
References
184
Cellular Automata
187
82 Types of Cellular Automata
189
822 2Dimensional Cellular Automata
191
823 3Dimensional Cellular Automata
193
824 Extended Types of Cellular Automata
194
83 Cellular Automata in Algorithmic Composition
195
831 Polyrhythmic Structures
200
84 Synopsis
201
References
203
Artificial Neural Networks
205
91 Theoretical Basis
206
92 Historical Development of Neural Networks
207
93 The Architecture of Neural Networks
208
931 The Perceptron
209
932 The BackPropagation Net as an Extension of the Perceptron
211
934 Kohonen Feature Maps
212
94 Artificial Neural Networks in Algorithmic Composition
213
941 Strategies of Musical Representation
214
942 Boltzmann Machines and LSTMs
219
95 Synopsis
221
References
222
Artificial Intelligence
225
101 Algorithmic Composition in AI
228
1011 State Space
231
1012 ContextDependent Variants of Knowledge Representation
233
1013 Reasoning
235
1014 Production Systems and RuleBased Systems
236
1015 Machine Learning
244
1016 Agents
252
102 Synopsis
254
References
255
Final Synopsis
259
112 The dominance of style imitation in algorithmic composition
262
113 Origins and characteristics of the treated procedures
264
114 Strategies of encoding representation and musical mapping
266
115 The evaluation of generated material
269
116 Limits of algorithmic composition
270
117 Transpersonalization and systems of universal validity
272
References
273
Index
275
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