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willingly acknowledged by the rival Otho, who did not scruple to accept (in 1209) the diadem from the pontifical hand. Only three years afterwards the Pope pronounced in the same plenitude of power the same sentence of anathema and depositions against Otho. With what justice could Otho dispute the power by which he had deigned to rise ?-The vacant throne was then conferred on Frederic." (Mr. Waddington's Hist. of Church, p. 342.)

The remarks of Mr. Waddington upon this transaction are most excellent, and corroborate the view taken by Dr. Barrow. Speaking of the usurpations of Papal over Royal AUTHORITY, he has these words -The eagerness with which the Emperors generally courted the ceremony of coronation, though it was attended by circumstances very humiliating to their pride, certainly proves that there existed among their subjects a strong feeling as to its propriety, perhaps its necessity.

'But that which gave the greatest colour to the extreme pretensions of the See was the readiness with which Princes acknowledged them when they found their profit in their acknowledgment. The very edicts which they rejected with scorn when addressed to themselves, they embraced and effectuated, when levelled against a rival. The right as a general right was never contested. The partial interests of the moment overpowered every consideration of a broader policy; and thus amidst the ever-reviving jealousies and dissensions of monarchs and pretenders, the consistent perseverance of the Vatican established the

most groundless claims, and accomplished the most extravagant purposes.' (Hist. of Church, p. 343.)

Great indeed was the authority of the Roman Druid! And this was given him by the Dragon! By whom else could it be given? We may judge who gave it by the manner in which it was exercised.

Look at our Saviour going about doing good, healing all manner of sickness and all manner of disease, and exercising his power and authority in acts of mercy! And then look at his (so called) Vicar, stirring up strife and sedition, absolving subjects from their allegiance to their Sovereign, laying whole kingdoms under ban and interdict, pursuing with unrelenting malice the objects of his displeasure, fomenting variance between prince and prince, taking the side of the weaker, whilst he remained the weaker, then changing sides and supporting his antagonistpromoting idolatry and superstition, proclaiming crusades against Christians, pouring out the blood of the saints like water, scattering their bones at the grave's mouth, as when one cutteth and cleaveth wood upon the earth-Look at the Roman Pontiff doing all this, and then decide whose Vicar he is, Christ's or the Dragon's! Look at the Pope doing all this, and then decide from whom he derives his power and for whom he uses it!



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WE have seen that the seven Heads of the Beast are to be considered, first, as consecutive, and, secondly, as contemporaneous.

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As Consecutive heads " they are seven Kings,' that is, they represent the seven forms of government which successively prevailed at Rome under Kings, Consuls, Dictators, Decemvirs, Military Tribunes with Consular Authority, Emperors and Dukes. We have seen also that these are Heads of the Papacy, inasmuch as there is an identity between the Papacy and the Pagan Roman Empire. Daniel represents them as one Beast or Empire. And St. John informs us that the Beast was expressly described by the Angel as "the Beast that was, and is not, and yet is."

The sixth consecutive Head is the Imperial Head. And it is generally supposed by commentators that

this is the Head which St. John beheld wounded as

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it were to death. The sixth Head,' says Bishop Newton, 'was as it were wounded to death, when the Roman Empire was overturned by the northern nations, and an end was put to the very name of Emperor in Momyllus Augustulus: or rather, as the government of the Gothic Kings was much the same as that of the Emperors, with only a change of the name, this Head was more effectually wounded to death, when Rome was reduced to a poor dukedom and made tributary to the exarchate of Ravenna; and Sigonius, who hath written the best of these times, and of these affairs, includes the history of the Gothic Kings in his history of the Western Empire.'


But, Secondly, the Heads of the Beast are to be considered as Contemporaneous Heads. They are seven mountains on which the woman sitteth." course we must now confine our attention to the seven mystical mountains on which the woman, whose name is "Mystery," sitteth. It is impossible that one of the literal hills on which Rome is situated should be " as it were wounded to death."

The Romish Church makes the word Mystery to be synonymous with the word Sacrament. Thus the Vulgate makes St. Paul to say in his Epistle to the Ephesians, "Sacramentum hoc magnum est: ego autem dico in Christo et in Ecclesiâ."-" This is a great Sacrament, but I speak in Christ and in the church." And the Council of Trent quotes the Vulgate to prove that Matrimony is a sacrament. The seven Heads on which the woman "Mystery" sitteth

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are, therefore, seven Mysteries" or seven Sacraments. And these Seven Sacraments are Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Orders, Matrimony.

The sixth contemporaneous head is therefore the Sacrament of Orders: and, to preserve consistency in our interpretation, it must be this Head which was seen by St. John "as it were wounded to death." There can be no mistake as to which is the Sixth Sacrament, for not only are the Seven Sacraments arranged in the Council of Trent as we have arranged them, but the Catechism of the Council assigns the reason why there are neither more nor less than Seven Sacraments, and why they are arranged as



But why they are neither more nor fewer than seven in number may be shewn with some probability of reason (probabili quâdam ratione) even from those things which in natural have an analogy to spiritual life. For these seven things appear necessary to man, in order to his living and preserving life, and prolonging it for his own benefit and that of the state that he be born; grow; receive nourishment ; if he fall sick, that he be restored to health; that his strength, when prostrate, be recruited; that with respect to the state, there be never wanting magistrates by whose authority and controul it may be directed ; and lastly, that by a lawful procreation of children, he preserve both himself and mankind.' The Catechism then goes on to shew that Baptism corresponds to the Birth; Confirmation to the growth; the Eucharist

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