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shipped the Beast, saying, who is like unto the Beast? who is able to make war with him? "
If we look to our own country, we find the lionhearted' Richard obeying the decrees of this imperious Pontiff and giving up his opposition to the cause which he had contested. Even he, lionhearted' as he was, found that the Pope's decrees must be obeyed, and that opposition to such a mighty Potentate was useless. In a Bull, dated 1197, Innocent III. declared that it was not fit that any man should be invested with authority who did not revere and obey the Holy See.' In another Bull, addressed that if he opposed the execution of the decrees of the Apostolic See, he would soon convince him how hard it was to kick In another Bull he declared 'that he would not endure the least contempt of himself or of God, whose place he held on earth, but would punish every disobedience without delay and without respect of persons: and would convince the whole world that he was determined to act like a sovereign.'
to Richard, he told him,
against the pricks.'
Nor were these Bulls empty threats. Richard knew full well that there was no sovereign on earth like unto the Pope, and that no one was able to make war with him.' He therefore resolved to revere and obey the Holy See,' that so he might avert the Pontiff's displeasure, and not learn by hard-bought experience how hard it would be for him to kick against the pricks.' Surely Richard, by comparing the treatment which he himself received from Inno
cent, as well as the general character of that Pontiff, with the description of the Beast in this thirteenth chapter of Revelation, might have understood without the assistance of the celebrated Joachim, that the Bishop of Rome was Antichrist.
Innocent did indeed reign in England with despotic power. And since the lion-hearted' Richard shrunk from contending with him and thought it necessary to submit, no wonder that John should be unable to 'make war with him.' The recommendation of the King, the election of the chapter, were both reversed. The Pope nominated Stephen Langton to the See of Canterbury. He commanded the Bishops of London, Worcester and Ely, to lay the whole kingdom under interdict. He issued a Bull of excommunication against John. He absolved his subjects from their allegiance, and commanded them to avoid his presence. He then proceeded to pronounce the final sentence of deposition, and conferred the vacant throne on the King of France. And, that the world might know that he was determined to act like a sovereign, and not to endure the least contempt of himself or of God, whose place he held upon earth,' he proclaimed a crusade against the English King, as against an infidel or a heretic. John resigned his crown to the Legate, and received it again as a present from the Holy See.
Henry III. was equally enslaved to the Pope, whose creatures he was compelled to enrich with the treasures of England almost entirely at the pleasure of the Pontiff.
If we turn our eyes from England to France, we
find an interdict laid on the whole kingdom. 'The public offices of worship were suspended: even the doors of the churches were closed: the Sacrament of Christ was no longer administered, and the rites of marriage and sepulture remained unperformed. We should here recollect, that with the mass of an ignorant people professing a corrupt form of faith, the public exercise of religion constituted, in fact, its entire substance. Deprived of that, they had no refuge in private prayer, or the consolations of internal devotion. To such persons the sentence of an interdict must have fallen like an immediate edict of rejection and separation from heaven; and such in the twelfth century was the multitude of every class. Philippe Auguste was a prince of uncommon resolution and address: nevertheless he found it expedient to bend before the tempest, and obey the Pontifical mandate.' (Mr. Waddington's Hist. of Church, p. 344.) What a striking comment have we here on the words of Inspiration, "And they worshipped the Beast, saying, Who is like unto the Beast? able to make war with him?" Richard of England was lion-hearted:' Philippe Auguste of France was a prince of uncommon resolution and address;' yet neither of them was a match for the Pope. Neither of them was able to make war with him.' Richard obeyed the decrees of the Pope, and gave up his opposition to the cause which he had contested.' (Milner). Philippe found it expedient to bend before the tempest and obey the Pontifical mandate.' If we look to the empire of Germany, we find no
one able to contest with the Pope. He deposes Philip and confers the vacant throne on Otho. Otho calls himself Emperor by the grace of God and the Pope.'-Again the Pope deposes Otho and confers the vacant throne on Frederic.
'Not contented to influence the most vigorous monarchs of the most powerful kingdoms of the age, he descended to issue his edicts to inferior princes. He sent forth instructions to the King of Navarre respecting the restoration of certain castles to Richard. He distributed the insignia of royalty to Briscislaus, Duke of Bohemia, and to the Dukes of Wallachia and Bulgaria. He conferred the crown of Arragon on Peter II. as his subject and tributary. And finally (that no race or clime might seem inaccessible to his arm) he gave a king to the Armenian nation, dwelling on the border of the Caspian Sea.' (Mr. Waddington's Hist. Church, p. 345.)
Innocent was indeed "the Wonder of the World." "All the world wondered after the Beast." He was indeed "the Changer of the Age." It was foretold by Daniel that he should "think to change times and laws" (chap. vii. 25), and also that he should "do according to his will." (Chap. xi. 36). And these prophecies were accomplished. Innocent boasted
'that he held the place of GOD on earth.' He, therefore assumed the prerogative of Deity, to "put down one and set up another, so that none might stay his hand or say unto him, What doest thou?" He disposed of empires and kingdoms "according to his will." None might contradict: none might lift up
a finger against him. They worshipped the Beast, saying, Who is able to make war with him ?"
If the Pope convened a council, he carried every thing his own way. The fourth Lateran Council was convoked by Innocent- the most numerous and most celebrated of the ancient assemblies of the Latin Church. This august body consisted of nearly five hundred archbishops and bishops, besides a much greater multitude of abbots and priors, and delegates of absent prelates, and ambassadors from most of the Christian courts of the west and of the east.' This was indeed a splendid council. But splendid as it was, it was only an "IMAGE made to the Beast." Was the Council an exception from those "who worshipped the Beast, saying, Who is like unto the Beast? Who is able to make war with him?" Far otherwise. Seventy canons were dictated by Innocent and received its obsequious confirmation. It does not appear that its deliberations (if they may so be called) were attended with any freedom of debate : and within a month from the day of its opening, having executed its appointed office, it was dismissed.' The single fact of its 'deliberations' being limited to a space of time less than a month, proves that they were no deliberations' at all in the true sense of the word and that the canons in question were not made matter of discussion with that numerous assembly.' (Hist. of Church, p. 347).
The same remark will apply to the other councils in general. They were indeed sometimes restive and refractory; but for the most part they were docile