The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States

Couverture
Princeton University Press, 1962 - 416 pages

The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States marked the beginning of the study of our postindustrial information society. Austrian-born economist Fritz Machlup had focused his research on the patent system, but he came to realize that patents were simply one part of a much bigger "knowledge economy." He then expanded the scope of his work to evaluate everything from stationery and typewriters to advertising to presidential addresses--anything that involved the activity of telling anyone anything. The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States then revealed the new and startling shape of the U.S. economy.


Machlup's cool appraisal of the data showed that the knowledge industry accounted for nearly 29 percent of the U.S. gross national product, and that 43 percent of the civilian labor force consisted of knowledge transmitters or full-time knowledge receivers. Indeed, the proportion of the labor force involved in the knowledge economy increased from 11 to 32 percent between 1900 and 1959--a monumental shift.


Beyond documenting this revolution, Machlup founded the wholly new field of information economics. The transformation to a knowledge economy has resonated throughout the rest of the century, especially with the rise of the Internet. As two recent observers noted, "Information goods--from movies and music to software code and stock quotes--have supplanted industrial goods as the key drivers of world markets." Continued study of this change and its effects is testament to Fritz Machlup's pioneering work.

 

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Table des matières

Introduction
3
Types of Knowledge and
13
Methods of Producing Knowledge
30
KNOWLEDGEPRODUCING INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS
44
Education
51
Training on the Job
57
Education in the Church
64
Elementary and Secondary Education
70
Photography and Phonography
236
Broadcasting
250
Advertising and Public Relations
265
Telephone Telegraph and Postal Service
275
Conventions
291
Information Machines
295
Signaling Devices
299
Information Services
323

Higher Education
77
Neglected Cost Items
92
The Total Cost of Education
103
Efficiency in Education
121
A Proposal for School Reform
134
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
145
Inventive Effort and Patent Protection
161
Research Company Size and Competition
176
Research as National Product
183
Basic Research and Higher Education
199
The Media of Communication
207
Government as Knowledge Industry
343
Total Production of Knowledge
348
Knowledge Production 1958 By Industry
352
Knowledge Production and Economic Growth
362
The Growth Rates of Knowledge Industries
366
Occupational Structure
377
The Income Shares of KnowledgeProducing Occupations
388
Some Implications
395
Index
401
Droits d'auteur

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