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his God. 24. And the king commanded, and they brought those men which had accused Daniel, and they cast them into the den of lions, them, their children and their wives; and the lions had the mastery of them, and brake all their bones in pieces, or ever they came at the bottom of the den. 25. Then king Darius wrote " unto all peo"ple, nations and languages that dwell in all "the earth, Peace be multiplied unto you. "26. I make a decree, that in every do"minion of my kingdom, men tremble and

"fear before the God of Daniel: for he is "the living God, and stedfast for ever, and "his kingdom that which shall not be de"stroyed, and his dominion shall be even "unto the end. 27. He delivereth and "rescueth, and he worketh signs and won"ders in heaven and in earth, who hath "delivered Daniel from the power of the "lions." 28. So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian.


CHAP. II. (a)



the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy moun"tain: let all the inhabitants of the land "tremble for the day of the LORD "cometh, for it is nigh at hand; 2. A "day of darkness and of gloominess, a "day of clouds and of thick darkness, as "the morning spread upon the moun"tains a great people and a strong, there "hath not been ever the like, neither shall "be any more after it, even to the years

written proclamation, in which he took notice, that the Lord (Jehovah, Heb.) God of heaven had given him all the kingdoms of the earth, and had charged him to build him a house at Jerusalem, and he therefore gave the Jews leave to go up to Jerusalem, and ordered the men of the place where each Jew sojourned to help him with silver, and with gold, and with a free-will offering for the house of God in Jerusalem. Ezra i. 1 to 4. The passages Is. xliv. 28. ante 624, and Is. xlv. 1. 13. are supposed to be referred to in this proclamation, and who so likely as Daniel to have shewn them to Cyrus, and to have induced him to act upon them?

(a) The time when Joel lived is uncertain: probably at the same time with Isaiah, Hosea, Amos, Micah, and Zephaniah; and if so, long before Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, or Malachi. His prophecies are confined to the kingdom of Judah.-A dreadful desolation threatened, some suppose by locusts and other insects, a strong exhortation

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to repentance, humiliation, and prayer, a promise of future favour, and of an effusion of God's holy spirit, (probably in the time of the Messiah,) an intimation of a further visitation, (probably the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans,) in which God's people, they who call upon his name, should escape.

(b) v. 3. "As the garden of Eden," i. e. "in a state of plenty and abundance :" what they find luxuriant, they leave desolate.

(c) v. 4. "Of horses." The description of the locusts denounced in Rev. ix. agrees in some particulars with this account," The

shapes of the locusts were like unto horses "prepared unto battle: and they had breast"plates, as it were breastplates of iron, and "the sound of their wings was as the sound of "chariots of many horses running to battle." Rev. ix. 7. 9. (d) v. 5.

verse 4.

The noise, &c." See note on


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"fore their face the people shall be much "pained 'e, all faces salli gather black"Less (e). 7. They shall run like mighty men; they shall climb the wall like men ❝ of war; and they shall march every one " on his ways, and they shall not break "their ranks. 8. Neither shall one thrust 66 another, they shall walk every one in " his path: and when they fail upon the ❝sword, they shall not be wounded (ƒ). 9. They shall run to and fro in the city: they shall run upon the wall, they "shall climb up upon the houses: they "shall enter in at the windows like a thief. "10. The earth shall quake before them, "the heavens shall tremble, the sun and the ❝ moon (g) shall be dark (b), and the "stars' shall withdraw their shining(b); "11. And the LORD shall utter his "voice before his army: for his camp is "very great: for he is strong that exe"cuteth his word (i): for the day of the "LORD is great and very terrible, and who "can abide it? 12. Therefore also now, "saith the LORD, "Turn ye even to "me with all your heart and with fasting, " and with weeping, and with mourning.

13. And rend your heart, and not your " garments, and turn unto the LORD your "God; for he is gracious and merciful, "slow to anger, and of great kindness, "and repenteth him of the evil. 14. Who "knoweth if he will return and repent, "and leave a blessing behind him, even a

(e) v. 6. Pained," i. e. " with dread," "gather blackness," i. e. " be down cast and "melancholy."

(f) v. 8. " Not be wounded," a strong expression, to imply that they would be irresistible: that all means of opposing them would fail.

(g) v. 10. "The sun and the moon, and "the stars," i. e. "the chiefs and rulers."

(b) v. 10. "Be dark," and "withdraw their "shining," i. e. "be disheartened,” and “un"able to give relief."

(i) v. 11. "His word," i. e. " his Judg"ment." God's minister and instrument must be irresistible.

(k) v. 14. "Even a meat-offering, &c." at least enough for the purposes of worship: which would not be the case if they were reduced to the state mentioned in verse 3. of "a desolate wilderness." In describing a deso.

"meat-offering (4) and a drink-offering " unto the LORD your God? 15. Blow "the trumpet in Zion, sanctify a fast, call "a solemn assembly; 16. Gather the "people: sanctify the congregation: as"semble the elders: gather the children (), " and those that suck the breast: let the "bridegroom (m) go forth of his chamber, " and the bride out of her closet. 17. Let "the priests, the ministers of the LORD, "weep between the porch and the altar(s) " and let them say, "Spare thy people, 0 "LORD, and give not thine heritage "reproach, that the heathen should ruk "over () them: wherefore should they "say among the people, Where is their "God?" 18. Then will the LORD be jea "lous for his land, and pity his people. "19. Yea, the LORD will answer and say "unto his people, "Behold I will send you ❝corn, and wine, and oil, and ye shall be "satisfied therewith: and I will no more "make you a reproach among the hea "then: 20. But I will remove får off " from you the northern army, and will "drive him into a land barren and deso"late, with his face toward the east sea), " and his hinder part toward the utmost "sea (p), and his stink shall come up, andhis ❝ill savour shall come up, because he hath "done great things. 21. Fear not, 0 "land, be glad and rejoice: for the LORD "will do great things. 22. Be not afraid,

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"tures of the wilderness do spring (r), for "the cree beareth (r) her fruit, the fig tree " and the vine do yield (r) their strength. "23. Be glad then, ye children of Zion,

and rejoice in the LORD your God: for " he hath given you the former rain mode. "rately; and he will cause to come down "for you the rain, the former rain and the "latter rain in the first month. 24. And "the floors shall be full of wheat, and the fats shall overflow with wine and oil. 25. And I will restore to you the years "that the locust hath eaten, the canker"worm, and the caterpiller, and the pal"mer-worm, my great army which I sent

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among you. 26. And ye shall eat in "plenty, and be satisfied, and praise the "name of the LORD your God, that hath "dealt wonderously with you: and my "people shall never be ashamed. 27. And


ye shall know that I am in the midst of Israel, and that I am the LORD your God,

(r) v. 22. "Do spring," "beareth," and "do yield," the present for the future. (s) v. 27. My people" i. e. " they who "trust in me." (t) v. 27. "Be ashamed," i. e. " have cause "to be ashamed."

(u) v. 28. "Afterward," or " in the last "days." St. Paul so quotes it, when he applies this passage to the first effusion of the Hole Ghost, Acts ii. 16 to 21. "This is that "which was spoken by the prophet "Joel, and "it shall come to pass in the last days, saith "God, I will pour out of my spirit upon all "flesh, &c." "The last days' "" mean "the "times of the Messiah," or "the last days of "the Jewish state." 2 Lightf. 1024.

(x) v. 28. 29. "Sons ;"" daughters, old men, young men, servants, handmaids," i. e. "without regard to age, sex, or station." (z) v. 31. "The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood." Figu rative expressions, to intimate the calamities and dismay which should fall upon the great. (a) v. 31. "The great and the terrible day, &c." i. e. (probably)" the time of the de"struction of Jerusalem." Our Saviour says,

"and none else: and my people (s) shall "never be ashamed (t). 28. And it shall "come to pass afterward (u), that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh, and


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your sons (x) and your daughters (x) shall "prophesy, your old men (x) shall dream "dreams, your young men (x) shall see visi"ons: 29. And also upon the servants (x) "and upon the handmaids (x) in those days "will I pour out my spirit. 30. And "I will shew wonders in the heavens and "in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars "of smoke. 31. The sun shall be turned "into darkness, and the moon into blood (z) "before the great and the terrible day (a) "of the LORD come: 32. And it shall "come to pass, that whosoever shall call "on the name of the LORD (b) shall be de"livered: for in mount Zion and in Jeru"salem (c) shall be deliverance, as the "LORD hath said, and in the remnant "whom the LORD shall call (d).”

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(b) v. 32. “Shall call on the name of the "Lord," i. e. " profess the true religion, and put their trust in God." It is supposed that at the destruction of Jerusalem, not a single Christian was included: Our Saviour gave them this advice; "when ye shall see Jerusalem com. "passed with armies, then know that the de"solation thereof is nigh: then let them which "are in Judea flee to the mountains, and let "them which are in the midst depart out." Luke xxi. 20. 21. An opportunity occurred after the first commencement of the siege, and at that time every Christian is supposed to have escaped.

(c) v. 32. "In mount Sion, and in Jerusa"lem," i. e. perhaps, figuratively "in the true "worship of God"; or it may mean, that in these places there shall be some deliverance, some who shall escape.

(d) v. 32. "The remnant whom the Lord "shall call," i. e. " those who shall listen to "his voice, and profess his religion."

CHAP. VI. (e)


HEAR ye now what the LORD saith,

Arise, contend thou before the "mountains (f), and let the hills (ƒ) hear "thy voice. 2. Hear ye, O mountains "the LORD's controversy, and ye strong ❝ foundations of the earth: for the LORD "hath a controversy with his people, and " he will plead with Israel. 3. O my peo"ple, what have I done unto thee, and "wherein have I wearied thee? testify "against me. 4. For I brought thee up "out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed "thee out of the house of servants, and I "sent before thee Moses, Aaron, and "Miriam. 5. O my people, remember "now what Balak king of Moab con❝sulted (g), and what Balaam the son of "Beor answered him from Shittim unto "Gilgal, that ye may know the righteous"ness of the LORD. 6. "Wherewith shall "I come before the LORD, and bow my "self before the high God? shall I come "before him with burnt-offerings, with

(e) Micah prophesied in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, and was therefore living in the times of Isaiah, Hosea, Amos, and Zephaniah, long before Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah or Malachi.-An expostulation from God with his people, and a denunciation against them for their sins.

(ƒ) v. 1. "The mountains," and "the hills, &c." i. e. " even the most senseless "things will be convinced of the iniquity of your ways." (g) v. 5.


"What Balak consulted, &c." This and the next three verses have two different interpretations; one upon the supposition that verses 6 and 7 contain a question from Balak to Balaam; and verse 8. Balaam's answer; and the other under the idea that verses 6. and 7. are a question now from the people unto God, and verse 8. God's answer. In the former case the only part of Balak's consultation and Balaam's answer to which the attention is called, is included in verses 6. 7. 8. and by "the righteousness of the Lord" is meant "the righteousness he "requires," viz. "to do justly, &c;" in the latter case," what Balak consulted," refers to his attempt to obtain a curse upon the Israelites from Balaam's mouth, that under the influence

"calves of a year old? 7. Will the L "be pleased with thousands of "with ten thousands of rivers of oil: et "I give my first-born for my transgres "the fruit of my body for the sin c "soul? 8. He hath shewed thee, 0 "what is good; and what doth the "require of thee, but to do justly (1 "to love mercy, and to walk humb "thy God? 9. The LORD's voice crie "unto the city, and the man of was i "shall see thy name (k): hear ye thera "and who hath appointed it. 10. "there yet (m) the treasures of wicks "in the house of the wicked, and the 66 measure that is abominable? 11. "I count them pure with wicked bins, "and with the bag of deceitful wa

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of it he might smite them and drive them of his land, Numb. xxii. 6. 11. 17. B answer was, "that he had received commande "to bless, and God had blessed, Numb. 20." and "the righteousness of God," God's kind disposition towards the Je people. Bp. Butler and Dr. Hales ador former construction. Butler's Serm. 1212 Hales, 129. Q. Which interpretation is (b) v.8. Justly," or "justice," he 220. A fine summary of man's duties!! (i) ข. 9. "Crieth," i. e. “takes extra "nary pains to make known what he re "proclaims it aloud, so that every o "hear it."

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(k) v.9. "See thy name," i. e. perceive thy name stamped upon t "mand; be satisfied of its authenticity" (1) v.9. "The rod," i.e. "the pun " for disobedience."

(m) v. 10. "Yet," "after this warning; "God hath cried to the city!"

(n) v. 12. "Thereof," i.e. " of the city, d "Jerusalem."

(o) v. 14. "Eat, &c." i. e. either "thy food "shall not give thee nourishment," or "thou "shalt not have food enough to nourish thee."

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en the

CHAP. II. (*)


WILL stand (y) upon my watch, and set me upon the tower, and will watch see what he (z) will say unto me, and at I shall answer when I am reproved.

p) v. 14. "Thy casting down, &c." i. e. ehaps, "thou shalt be visited with inward and Lickness."

outh (9) v. 14." Thou shalt take hold, &c." i. e. rhaps," that which you most value, what you most would wish to save, shall either be wrested from you, or given to the sword." alter (r) v. 15. "Sow, &c." "thou shalt have the toil, not the produce." Like the nunciation, Deut. xxviii. 38 to 40. 12 (5) v. 15.

For " sweet wine," r. "thou shalt

6 have vineyards."

(t) v. 16. "Omri," one of the wicked kings Israel, Ahab's father; "he wrought evil in the sight of the Lord, worse than all that were before him. 1 Kings xvi. 25." (u) v. 16. "My people," or "the heathen." pt.

(x) The exact time when Habakkuk lived is t known: probably before the commencent of the Babylonish captivity: for he says, ab. i. 6. "Lo, I raise up the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation ;" and enters o a more minute description of their strength martial qualities than would have been ely had they before been known in Judea. A prophecy of the great deliverance by the essiah in God's appointed time, but not beere, of earlier deliverance to the Jews from e Babylonian power, and of the judgments fall upon that nation.

(y) v. 1. "I will stand, &c." He had been postulating with God in chapter i. for sufring the oppressions and successes of the icked, perhaps referring to the success of the

2. And the LORD answered me, and said, "Write (a) the vision, and make it plain "upon tables, that he may run (b) that "readeth it. 3. For the vision (c) is yet (d) for an appointed time, but at "the end it (e) shall speak, and not

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Babylonians, and their oppressions upon the Jews; and he here betakes himself to his station, like a watchman of those times, to hear what God will answer.


(x) v. I. He," i. e. "God."

(a) v. 2. "Write, &c." This implies that it was of great importance, and that persons not then born were concerned in knowing it.

(b) v. 2. "May run, &c." so that it was to be short as well as clear, that it might be seen and understood at a single glance.

(c) v. 3. "The vision," i. e. (probably) "the great subject of prophecy from the fall, "the deliverance by the Messiah."

(d) v. 3. "Yet, &c." i. e. (probably) "there is an interval, a fixed and settled time "which must elapse before this great event."

(e) v. 3. "It," or "he," " him," so in all the antient versions. Bp. Chandler's Defence of Chrisianity 163. and so cited Hebr. x. 37. The antient rabbins considered this a prophecy of the Messiah, and the Talmudists do the same. Chandl. 166. 7. Bp. Chandler thus renders the passage; "And at the end he "shall break forth," (i. e. as the sun)" and "not deceive though he tarry, expect him, "because he that cometh will come, he will "not go beyond [God's appointed time.] "Behold, if any man draw back, the soul of "him (God) shall have no pleasure in him, "but the just shall live by faith." Chandl. Def. 162. The citation Hebr. x. 37. 38. as far as it goes, agrees nearly with Bp. Chandler. "For yet a little time, and he that shall come, "will come, and will not tarry: now the just

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