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PREFACE.

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took place was the work of God. This will be tho conclusion arrived at by every one who considers the oub ject with impartiality and attention, and does not rest in a superficial view. But the historian has a farther office to perform: God acts by second causes. Many circumstances, which have osten escaped observation, gradually prepared men for the great transformation of the sixteenth century, so that the human mind was ripe when the hour of its emancipation arrived.

The office of the historian is to combine these two principal elements in the picture he presents. This is what is attempted in the present work. We shall be easily understood, so long as we investigate the secondary causes which contributed to bring about the revolution we have undertaken to describe. Many will, per: haps, be slower of comprehension, and will be inclined even to charge us with superstition, when we shall ascribe to God the accomplishment of the work. And yet that thought is what we particularly cherish. The history takes as its guiding star the simple and pregnant truth that God 18 in History. But this truth is commonly forgotten, and sometimes disputed. It seems fit, therefore, that we should open our views, and by so doing justify the course we have taken.

In these days, history can no longer be that dead letter of facts to recording which the majority of the earlier historians confined themselves. It is felt that, as in man's nature, so in his history, there are two elements—matter and spirit. Our great writers, unwilling to restrict themselves to the production of a simple recital, which would have been but a barren chronicle, have sought for some principle of life to animate the materials of the past.

Some have borrowed such a principle from the rules of art ; they have aimed at the simplicity, truth, and picturesque of description; and have endeavoured to make their narratives lide by the interest of the events themselves.

Others have sought in philosophy the spirit which should secundate their labours. With incidents they have intermingled reflections, instructions, political and philosophic truths, and have thus enlivened their recitals with a moral which they have elicited froin them, or ideas they have been able to associate with themn.

Both these methods are, doubtless, useful, and should be employed within certain limits. But there is another source whence we must above all seek for the ability to enter into the understanding, the mind, and the life of past ages; and this is Religion. History must live by that principle of life wbich is proper to it, and that life is God. He must be acknowledged and proclaimed in history ; and the course of events must be displayed as the annals of the government of a Supreme Disposer.

I have descended into the lists to which the recitals of our historians attracted me. I have there seen the actions of men and of nations developing themselves with power, and encountering in hostile collision ; I have heard I know not what clangour of arms; but nowhere has my attention been directed to the majestic aspect of the Judge who presides over the struggle.

And yet there is a principal of movement emanating from God himself, in all the changes among nations. God looks upon that wide stage on which the generations of men successively meet and struggle. He is there, it is true, an invisible God; but if the profaner multitude pass before Him without noticing Him, because he is " a God that hideth himself,” thoughtful spirits, and such as feel their need of the principle of their being, seek him with the more earnestness, and are not satisfied until they lie prostrate at his feet. And their search is richly rewarded. For, from the heights to which they are obliged to climb to meet their God, the world's history, instead of offering, as to the ignorant crowd, a consused chaos, appears a majestic temple, which the invisible hand of God erects, and which riscs to His glory above the rock of humanity:

Shall we not acknowledge the hand of God in those great men, or in those mighty nations which arisecome forth, as it were, from the dust of the earth, and give a new impulse, a new form, or a new destiny to human affairs ! Shall we not acknowledge His hand in those heroes who spring up anong men at appointed timcs ; who display activity and energy beyond the ordinary limits of human strength, and around whom individuals and nations gather, as if to a superior and mysterious power? Who launched them into the expanse of ages, like comets of vast extent and flaming trains, appearing at long intervals, to scatter among the superstitious tribes of men anticipations of plenty and joy—or of calamities and terror? Who, but God himself? Alexander would seek his own origin in the abodes of the Divinity. And in the most irreligious age there is no eminent glory but is seen in some way or other seeking to connect itself with the idea of divine ilterposition.

And those revolutions which, in their progress, precipitate dynasties and nations to the dust, those heaps of ruin which we meet with in ihe sands of the desert, those majestic remains which the field of human hisCory offers to our rejection, do they not testify aloud to the truth that God is in History: Gibbon, seated on the ancient Capitol, and contemplating its noble ruins, acknowledged the intervention of a superior destiny. "; he felt its presence; wherever his eye turned it met him ; that shadow of a mysterious power reappeared from behind every ruin; and be conceived the project of depicting its operation in the disorganization, ihe decline, and the corruption of that power of Rome which had enslaved the nations. Shall not that mighty hand which this man of admirable genius, but who had not bowed the knee to Jesus Christ, discerned among the scattered monuments of Romulus and of Marcus Aurelius, the busts of Cicero, and Virgil, Trajan's trophies, and Pompey's horses, be confessed by us as the hand of our God ?

But what superior lustre does the truth-that God is in history-acquire under the Christian dispensation ! What is Jesus Christ-but God's purpose in the world's history? It was the discovery of Jesus Christ which admitted the greatest of modern historians* to the just comprehension of his subject. “The gospel," says he, “is the fulfilment of all hopes, the perfection of all philosophy, the interpreter of all revolutions, the key to all the seeming contradictions of the physical and moral world, it is life, it is immortality. Since I have known the Saviour, everything is clear ; with him, there is nothing I cannot solve."

Thus speaks this distinguished historian; and, in truth, is it not the keystone of the arch-is it not the mysterious bond which holds together the things of the earth, and connects them with those of heaven-that God has appeared in our nature ? What! God has been born into this world, and we are asked to think and write, as if He were not everywhere working out his own will in its history? Jesus Christ is the true God of human history; the very lowliness of his appearance may be regarded as one proof of it. If man • John von Müller.

Lettre à C. Bonnet

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PREFACE.

vi designs a shade or a shelter upon earth, we look to see preparations, materials, scaffolding, and workmen. But God, when he will give shade or shelter, takes the small seed which the new-born infant might clasp in its feeble hand, and deposits it in the bosom of the earth, and from that seed, imperceptible in its beginning, he produces the majestic tree, under whose spreading boughs the families of men may find shelter. To schieve great results by imperceptible means, is the law of the divine dealings.

It is this law which has received its noblest illustration in Jesus Christ. The religion which has now taken possession of the gates of all nations, which at this hour reigns, or hovers over all the tribes of the earth, from east to west, and which even a sceptical philosophy is compelled to acknowledge as the spiritual and social law of this world ; that religion, than which there is nothing nobler under the vault of heaven, nay, in the very universe of creation; what was its commencement ? ... A child born in the meanest town of the most despised country of the earth; a child whose mother had not even what falls to the lot of the most indigent and wretched women of our cities--a room to bring forth in--a child born in a stable and placed in an ox's crib ....0 God! I acknowledge thee there, and I adore thee.

The Reformation recognised the same law of God's operations : and it had the consciousness that it fulfilled it. The thought that God is in history is often put forth by the Reformers. We find it on one occasion in particular, expressed by Luther, under one of those comparisons familiar and grotesque, yet not without a certain sublimity, which he took pleasure in using, that he might be understood by the people. “The world," said he one day, in a conversation with his friend at table, " the world is a vast and grand game of cards, made up of emperors, kings, and princes. The pope, for several centuries, has beaten emperors, princes, and kings. They have been put down and taken up by him. Then came our Lord God; he dealt the cards ; he look the most worthless of them all, (Luther,) and with it he has beaten the pope, the conqueror of the kingo of the earth ... There is the ace of God. He has cast down the mighty from their seats, and has exalted them of low degree,' as Mary says."

The age of which I am about io retrace the history is most important for our own generation. Man, when he feels his weakness, is generally inclined to seek assistance in the institutions he sees standing around him, or else in groundless inventions of his imagination. The history of the Reformation shows that nothing new can be wrought with "old things," and that is, according to the Saviour's word, we need new boltles for new wine, we need also new wine for new bottles. The history of the Reformation directs men to God, who orders all events in history ; to that divine word, ever ancient in the eternal nature of the truths it contains, ever new in the regenerative influence it exercises-that word which, three centuries ago, purified saciety, brought back the faith of God to souls enfeebled by superstition, and which, in every age of man's history, is the source whence cometh salvation.

It is singular to observe many persons, impelled by a vague desire to believe in something settled, addressing themselves now-a-days to old Catholicism. In one view, the movement is natural. Religion is so little known (in France) that men scarce think of finding it elsewhere than where they see it inscribed in large letters on a banner that time has made venerable. We do not say that all Catholicism is incapable of affording to man what he stands in need of. We think Catholicism should be carefully distinguished from popery. Popery is, in our judgment, an erroneous and destructive system ; but we are far from consounding Catholicism with popery. How many respectable men, how many sincere Christians has not the Catholic Church comprised within its pale! What important services were rendered by Catholicism to the existing European pations, in the age of their first formation, at a period when itself was still richly imbued with the Gospel, and wben popery was as yet only seen behind it as a faint shadow! But those times are past. In our day, attempts are made to reconnect Catholicism with popery; and is Catholic and Christian iruths are put forward, they are but as baits made use of to draw men into the net of the hierarchy. There is, therefore, nothing to be hoped from that quarter. Has popery renounced so much as one of its observances, of its doctrines, or of its claims ? The religion which was insupportable in other ages, will be less so in ours? What regeneration has ever emanated from Rome? Is it from that priestly hierarchy, full, even to overflow, of Earthly passions--that that spirit of faith, of charity, of hope can come forth, which alone can save us ? Can an exhausted system, which has scarcely strength for ils own need, and is everywhere in the struggles of death, living only by external aids, can such a system communicate life, and breathe throughout Christian society the heavenly breath that it requires ?

This craving void in the heart and mind which betrays itself in our contemporaries, will lead others to apply to that inodern Protestantism which has, in many parts, taken the place of the powerful doctrines of Apostles and Reformers? A notable uncertainty of doctrine prevails in many of those Reformed churches whose first inembers sealed with their blood the clear and living faith that animated their hearts. Men, distinguished for their information, and, in all other things, susceptible of generous emotions, are found carried away into singular aberrations. A vague faith in the divine authority of the Gospel is the only standard they will maintain. But what is this Gospel! The whole question turns on that ; and yet on that they are silent, or else each one speaks after his own mind. What avails it to know that God has placed in the midst of the nations a vessel containing their cure, if we are regardless what it contains, or fail to appropriate its contents to ourselven! This system cannot fill up the void of the times. While the faith of Apostles and Reformers discovers itsell, at this day, everywhere active and effectual for the conversion of the world, this vague system does nothing, throws light on nothing, vivifies nothing.

But let us not abandon all hopes. Does not Catholicism consess the great doctrines of Christianity ? does it not acknowledge the one God, Falker, Son, and Spiril-Creator, Saviour, and Sanctifier? And that vague Protestantism-does it not hold in its hand the book of life, for conviction and instruction in righteousness? And how many upright minds, honoured in the sight of men and beloved of God, are there not found among those subjected to these two systems! How can we help loving them! How refrain from ardently desiring their complete emancipation from human elements ? Charity is boundless; it embraces the most distant opinions lo lead them to che feet of Jesus Christ.

Already there are indications that these two extreme opinions are in motion, and drawing nearer to Jesus Christ, who is the centre of the truth. Are there not already some Roman Catholic congregations among whom the roading of the Bible is recommended and practised ? and as to Protestant rationalism, how many

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steps has it not already taken toward Jesus Christ? It never was the offspring of the Reformation-for the history of that great change will show that it was an epnch of faith-bui inay we not be permitted to hope that it is drawing nearer to it? Will you the power of the truth come forth to it from the word of God? and will not its coming have the effect of transforming it? Already we often see in it a feeling of religion, inadequale, no doubt, but yet a inovement in the direction of sound learning, encouraging us to look for moto definite advances.

But modern Protestantism, like old Catholicism, is, in itsell, a thing from which nothing can be hoped-a thing quite pwerless. Something very different is necessary, to restore to men of our day the energy that

A something is requisite which is not of man, but of God. “ Give me,” said Archimedes, a point out of the world, and I will raise the world from its poles." True Christianity is this standing beyond the world, which lifts the heart of man from its double pivot of selfishness and sensuality, and which will one day move the whole world from its evil way, and cause it to turn on a new axis of righteousness and peace.

Whenever religion has been the subject of discussion, there have been three points to which our attention have been directed. God, Man, and ibe Priest. There can be but three kinds of religion on this earth, God, Man, or the Priest, is its author or its head. I call that the religion of the Priest, which is devised by the priest, for the glory of the priest, and in which a priestly caste is dominant. I apply the name of the religion of Man to those systems and various opinions framed by man's reason, and which, as they are the offspring of his infirmity, are, by consequence, destitute of all sanative efficacy. I apply the words, religion of God, to the Truth, such as God himself has given it, and of which the object and the effect are God's glory and Man's salvation.

Hierarchism, or the religion of the priest ; Christianity, or the religion of God; rationalism, or the religion of man; such are the three doctrines which, in our day, divide Christendom. There is no salvation, either for man or society, in hierarchism or in rationalisın. Christianity alone can give lise to the world; and, unhappily, of the three prevailing systems, it is not that which numbers most followers.

Some, however, it has. Christianity is operating its work of regeneration among many Catholics of Germany, and doubtless also of other countries. It is now accomplishing it with more purity, and power, as we think, among the evangelical Christians of Switzerland, of France, of Great Britain, and of the United States. Blessed be God, such individual or social regenerations, wrought by the Gospel, are no longer in these days prodigies to be sought in ancient annals. We have ourselves witnessed a powerful awakening, begun in the midst of conflicts and trials, in a small republic, whose citizens live happy and tranquil in the bosom of the wonders with which creation surrounded ihern.* It is but a beginning; and already from the plenteous horn of the Gospel we see come forth among this people a noble, elevated, and courageous profession of the great truths of God; a liberty ample and real, a government full of zeal and intelligence; an affection, elsewhere too rarely found, of magistrates for people, and of the people for their inagistrates ; a powerful impulse communicated to education and general instruction, which will make of this country an example for imitation; a slow, but certain amelioration in morals; inen of talent, all Christians, and who rival the first writers of our language. All these riches developed between the dark Jura and the summits of the Alps, on the magnificent shores of Lake Leman, must strike the traveller attracted thither by the wonders of those mountains and valleys, and present to his meditation one of the most eloquent pages which the Providence of God has inscribed in favour of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

It is the history of the Reformation in general that I propose to write. I intend to trace it among different nations—to point out the same effects of the same truths--as well as the diversities which take their origin in the varieties of the national character. But it is in Germany especially that we shall see and describe the history of the Reformation. It is there we find its primitive type—it is there that it offers the fullest development of its organization. It is there that it bears, above all, the marks of a revolution, not confined to one or more nations, but, on the contrary, affecting the world at large. The German Reformation is the true and fundamental Reformation. It is the great planet, and the rest revolve in wider or narrower circles around it, like satellites drawn after it by its movement. And yet the Reformation in Switzerland must, in some respect, be considered as an exception, both because it took place at the very time as that of Germany, and independently of it; and because it bore, especially at a later period, some of those grander features which are seen in the latter. Notwithstanding that recollections of ancestry and of refuge--and the memory of strug. gle, suffering, and esile, endured in the cause of the Reformation in France--give, in my view, a peculiar charın to the history of its vicissitudes. I nevertheless doubt whether I could place it in the same rank as those which I have here spoken of.

From what I have said, it will be seen that I believe the Reformation to be the work of God. Nevertheless, as its historian, I hope to be impartial. I think I have spoken of the principal Roman Catholic actors in the great drama, Leo X., Albert of Magdeburg, Charles V., and Doctor Éck, &c. more favourably than the majority of historians. And, on the other hand, I have had no wish to conceal the faults and crrors of the Reformiers.

This history has been drawn from the original sources with which a long residence in Germany, the Low Countries, and Switzerland has made me familiar; as well as from the study, in the original language, of docuinents relating to the religious history of Great Britain and other countries. Down to this time we possess no history of that remarkable period. Nothing indicated that the deficiency would be supplied when I commenced this work. This circuinstance could alone have led me to undertake it; and I here allege it in iny justification. The want still exists; and I pray Him from whoin cometh down every good gist, to cause that this work may, by his blessing, be made profitable to some who shall read it.

. Canton of Vaud.

CONTENTS.

BOOK I.- Page 9.

STATE OF EUROPE PRIOR TO THE REFORMATION.

Rise of the Papacy-Early Encroachments-Co-operation of the Bishops—Unity of the Church-Visible

Unity--Primacy of St. Peter-Patriarchates--Policy of Rome-Charlemagne-Disorders of Rome--Hil-
debrand— The Crusades--Spiritual Despotism-Salvation by Grace-Pelagianism--The Church-Penance
-Indalgences-Purgatory—Tax of Indulgences—The Papacy and Christianity— Theology--Dialectics
Predestination-Penance--Religion-Relics-Morals-Corruption-Disorders of the Priests—Bishops
and Popes-Alexander VI-Cæsar Borgia-General Corruption-Ciceronians—Efforts for Reform-Prog-
pects of Christianity-State of the Papacy-Internal Divisions—Carnality of the Church--Popular Feeling

— Doctrine-Development of Mind-Revival of Letters-Philosophy-Principle of Reformation-Wit-
nesses— Mystics— Wiclif-Huss--Witnesses-- The Empire - Peace--State of the People-State of Ger-
many-Switzerland-Italy-Spain--Portugal-France-Low Countries-England-Bohemia and Hun-
gary-Frederic the Wise-Mon of Letters—Reuchlin--His Labours-Reuchlin in Italy---Contest with
the Dominicans--The Hebrew Writings Erasmus_Erasmus and Lather-Hütten-Literæ Obscurorum
Virorum-Hütten at Brussels--Sickingin-Cronberg-Hans Sachs-General Ferment.

BOOK III.- Page 63.

THE INDULGENCES AND THE THESB9.

1517-1518.

Tetzel-Confessions—The Sale-Penance-Letter of Indulgence --Relaxations—A Soul in Purgatory The

Shoemaker of Hagenau-Myconius–A Stratagem-Opinions of the People-The Miser of Schneeberg -
Leo X.--Albert-Farming Indulgences--Franciscans and Dominicans-Confession-A Calumny Refuted
-Luther's Sermon- The Dream-Theses-Letter to Albert-Efforts for Reforin—The Bishops--Spread
of the Theses--Reception of the Theses—Effects of the Theses-Myconius-Apprehension-Opposers at
Wittemberg-Luther's Answer-Dejection of Luther-Motives—Telzel's Attack-Luther's Answer
Luther's Boldness-Luther and Spalatin--Study of the Scriptures-Scheurl and Luther--Albert Durer-
Tetzel's Reply-Disputation at frankfort-- Tetzel's Theses-Luther's Theses Burned-Outcry of the
Monks-Luther's Cornposure-Tetzel's Theses Burned—The higher Clergy-Prierias-- The Romish
System-The Disciple of the Bible--The Doctrine of the Reformation-Luther's Reply to Prierias
Hochstraten-Doctor Eck—The “ Asterisks "-Scheurl Attempts Reconciliation-Luther's Tracts—
“ Who art in Heaven "-"Our Daily Bread' -_" Remission of Sins"-Effects of Luther's Teaching-
Luther's Journey-The Palatine Castle The “ Paradoxes "--The Disputation-Its Results—Bucer-
Brentz--The Gospel of Heidelburg—Effect on Luther— The Old Professor-Return to Wittemberg.

BOOK IV.-PAGE 91.

LUTHER BEFORE THE LEGATE.

May to December 1518.

The Pope-Leo X-Lother to his Bishop-Luther to the Pope-Luther to the Vicar-General—The Cardi-

nal to the Elector--Sermon on Excommunication-Luther's Influence-Diet at Augsburg–The Emperor
and the Elector-Letters to the Pope-Citation of Luther to Rome-Intercession of the Universiıy--The
Legate De Vio–The Pope's Brief-Luther's Indignation—The Pope to the Elector-George Schwarzerd
- Melancihon-Luther and Melancthon-Staupitz to Spalatin-Luther's Resolution-He sets out-At
Nuremburg-Luther at Nuremburg—De Vio-Serra Longa and Luther-Return of Serra Longa-Prior
of the Carmelites-Serra Longa-Luther aud Serra Longa—The Safe Conduc:--Appearance before the
Legale-First Interview-De Vio's Proofs-Luther's Replies--A Proposal-Luther and De Vio-Luther's
Declaration - The Legate's Answer-Luther's Request - Third Conference--Luther's Declaration–The
Legate's Answer-Luther's Reply-The Cardinal Foiled-Rumours-De Vio and Staupitz-Luther to
Carlstadt-The Communion-Departure of Staupitz-Letter to the Legate-Luther and the legate-
Luther's Letter to the Legate-His Appeal-Luther's Flight--Nuremburg-The Legate to the Elector-
Luther to the Elector-Graesenthal-Luther to Spalatin--Luther's Jutended Departure - Critical Hour
-Deliverance-Dissatisfaction at Romc-The Pope's Bull-Luther Appeals to a Council.

BOOK V. - Page 115.

THE LEIPSIC DISCUSSION_1519.

The Pope's Chamberlain-Luther in Danger-Favourable Circumstances—Tetzel's Fears—Miltitz's Caresse

-Retractation--Luther proposes silence-The Legate's Kiss-Tetzel Rebuked-Luther's Letter---Oppo-
sed to Separation-De Vio and Miltitz at Treves--The Reformed Opinions Spread-Luthor's Writing
-Contest seems to Flag-Eck- The Pope's Authority--Luther Answers—Alarm of Luther's Friends-
Truth Secure of Victory—The Bishop's Remonstrance-Mosellanus—Arrival of Eck-An III Omen-Eck
and Luther - The Pleissenburg — Judges Proposed — The Procession-Luther-Carlstadt--Eck-Carl-
stadi's Books--Merit of Congruity-Scholastic Distinction-Grace gives Liberty-Melancthon-Eck
claims Victory-Lother Preaches-Quarrel of Students and Doctors-Eck and Luther-The Roman Pria
macy-Equality of Bishops-Christ the Foundation—Insinuation—The Hussites-Commotion in the Au-
dience-Monkish Horror-The Indulgences Attention of the Laity-Eck's Report-George of Anhalt
- The Students of Leipsic-Results of the Disputation-- More Liberty— Activity of Eck-Melancthon's

Defence-Firmness of Luther-Staupitz's Coolness-Christ given for us—Infatuation of the Adversaries

-The Lord's Supper-Is Faith Necessary-God's Word a Sword-Luther's Calmness.

BOOK VI.- Page 133.

THE ROMAN BULL, 1520.

Candidates for the Empire-Charles-Francis I.—The Crown Offered to Frederic-Charles Elected-Dan.

gers-Frederic to the Roman Court.-Luther's Feelings-Melancthon's Alarm-Schaumburg-Sickingen

Hulten-Luther's Confidence-Faith, the Spring of Works—The Author of Faith-Attack on the

Papacy—The Three Barriers—All Christians Priests—Corruptions of Rome-Germany in Danger-Call

for Reform-Marriage of Priests—The Empire-Conclusion-Success of the Appeal — Rome — Policy of

Rome-Separation-The Swiss Priest - The Roman Cousistory-Condemnation-Melancihon-Melanc-

thon's Hearth-His Studies-Melancthon's Mother-The Gospel in italy--Luther on the Mass—"Baby-

lonian Captivity" of the Church-Baptism--No other Vows-Miltitz at Eisleben-Deputation to Luther

-Conference at Lichtenberg-Luther's Letter to the Pope-Union of Christ and the Believer— Arrival of

the Bull in Gerinany- The Students of Leipsic-Eck at Erfurth-Luther's Feelings—The Pirckheiiner

Family-Luther-Ulric Zwingle-Luther's Answer-Fresh Movements - The Bonfire of Louvain-Ly-

ther's Tranquility-Appeal to a Council --Struggle—Burning of the Pope's Bull-Luther and the Acade-

my-Luther and the Pope-Melancthon to the States-Luther Encourages his Friends-- Melancthon to the

Fearful-Luther's Vocation--The Bible and the Doctors—Retractation -- Aleander the Nuncio— The Nun-

cio and the Emperor — The Nuncio and the Elector-Duke John's Son Intercedes-The Elector Protects

Luther— The Nuncio's Answer-Erasmus in Cologne-Erasmus and the Elector-Erasmus's Declaration

-Erasmus's Advice, The Confessional-Luther on Consession-Antichrist-Luther's Cauze Gains

Strength-Satires—Ulric Von Hullen-Carnival at Wittemberg-Staupitz Alarmed-Luther's Labours

-Progress of the Reformation.

BOOK VII.- Page 160.

THE DIET OF WORMS, 1521. JANUARY TO MAY.

Difficulties—Luther Summoned to Worms ---Public Opinion-Efforts of Aleander–Fresh Charges Against

Luther--Aleander Rouses Rome-The Bull Fulminated-Luther's Molives--Political Councils--The

Consessor-And the Chancellor-Unavailing Manæuvres-Erasmus's Declaration–The Briess-The

Threats-The Audience-Speech of Aleander— Rome's Desence-Appeal to Charles-Effects of the Nun-

cio's Speech-Feelings of the Princes-Duke George's Speech--Character of the Reformation-Charles

Gives Way-Public Opinion-Luther's Serenity-Death and no Retractation-Soinmons-Safe.Conduct

-Fears of the Elector-Holy Thursday at Rome--The Pope and Luther-Luther's Coorage-Bugenhagen

--Persecution in Pomerania-Amsdorff-Schurff--Huiten to Charles V.-Luther's Farewell—Luther at

Weimar-Cavalcade of Erfurth-Justus Jonas, Preaches at Erfurth-Faith and Works -The l’eople and

Luther-Luther lo Spalatin-A Stratagem-Luther's Resolution-Enters Worms—Death Song-Capito

and the Temporisers-Citation-His Prayer— The Strength of the Reformation-Luther Repairs to the

Diet-The Diet-Luther is Encouraged-Luther's Answer-Luther's Prudence- The Spaniards-Lu-

ther's Vow-Luther Again Before the Diel-Luther's Speech-Requires Proof Error-A Warning

Voice-Repeats his Speech in Latin--New Attempt--Calm in the Midst of Tumule-Duke Eric's Offer-

ing-The Elector and Spalatin-The Emperor's Message--The Safe-Conduct in Danger-Enthusiasm for

Luther-Conciliation-Concourse to Luther-Phillip of Hesse-Conference at Abp. of Treves-Wene's

Exhortation--Private Conversation-Cochlæus's Proposal-Bursting of the Wine Glass-Conference at

the Hotel-Final Conference with the Archbishop-End of the Negociations—Luther Ordered to Quit

Worms-Luther's Departure from Worms--His Letter to Cranach-Luther's Letter to Charles V.—The

Curate of Eisenach-Charles Signs the Decree Against Luther—The Edict of Worms-Lulher Among

his Relations-The Ways of God, The Wartburg — The Reformation Under a Cloud.

BOOK VIII. - Page 189.

THE Swiss-1434-1522.

Democracy-Mercenary Service—The Cottage of Wildhaus--The Herdsman's family-Young Ulric-Ulric

at Bale-Ulric at Berne-Jetzer and the Ghost—Jetzer's Visions—Exposure of the Dominicans-Passion
for Music-Wittembach-Schinner-The Labyrinth-Zwingle in Italy-Principals of the Reformation-
Zwingle's Studies-Zwingle's Classical Studies Paris and Glaris-Oswald Myconius–Ecolampadius-
Zwingle and Marignan-Alarm of the Pope—Dawn of the Reformation-Effects of the Defcat at Marignan
- The Two Worlds–Our Lady of the Eremites-A Learned Society-Zwingle Transcribes the Scrip-
tures—Zwingle Ofposes Error-Effects of his Preaching-Zwingle and the Legate—The Bishop of Con-
stance-Stapler and Zwingle-The Preachership-The Candidates—Zwingle's Confession-Zwingle
Elected - Leaves Einsidlen--Reception by the Chapter-Zwingle's Mode of Lecturing—Zivingle opens

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