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deserves the highest commendation : they collect all the facts, which serve to place the object in their view in its true light, and all the arguments which support the doctrines which they wish to inculcate. These, they assiduously circulate in every literary form, from operose disquisition, to familiar instruction. Thus, even without the slightest contentious effort, they insensibly produce a salutary effect on the public mind : and, at a propitious time, submit their plans to the legislature.
The doctrine of the Quakers was refined and reduced to a consistent form, by Mr. Robert Barclay; and some of his writings are their standard books.
He first published his Catechism : the title of it is, “ A Catechism and Confession of Faith, approved of, and agreed unto, by the General Assembly of the Patriarchs, Prophets, and Apostles, Christ himself chief speaker in and among them. Which containeth a full and faithful account of the Principles and Doctrines, which are most surely believed by the churches of Christ, in Great Britain and Ireland, who are reproachfully called by the name of Quakers, yet are found in the one Faith with the primitive church and saints, as is clearly demonstrated by some plain scripture testimonies, without consequences or commentaries, which are here collected, and inserted by way of answer to a few weighty; yet easy and familiar expressions, fitted as well for the wisest and largest, as for the weakest and lowest capacities. To which is added, an Erpostulation with, and Appeal to, all other Professors. By Robert Barclay.” The Preface to the Reader is dated, “ From Urie, the place of my being, in my native country, in Scotland, the 11th of the 6th Month, 1675.” It consists of 18 chapters; the 14 first, contain his Catechism ;-the 15th, a Short Introduction to the Confession of Faith ;---the 16th, the Confession of Faith, in 23 articles ;-the 17th, a short Expostulation, with an Appeal to all other Professors ;-the 18th, " a short Examination of some of the Scripture Proofs alledged by the Divines at Westminster, to prove diverse articles in their Confession of Faith and Catechism."
Not long after the publication of his Catechism, Mr. Robert Barclay published his Theses Theologica, with the following ad-' dress: “ To the Clergy, of what sort soever, unto whose hands soever these may come; but more particularly to the Doctors, Professors, and Students of Divinity in the Universities and Schools of Great Britain, whether Prelatical, Presbyterian, or any other; Robert Barclay, a servant of the Lord God, and one of those, who, in derision, are called Quakers, wishes unfeigned repentance, unto the acknowledgement of the Faith.”
It was speedily followed by his “ Apology for the true Christian Divinity; being an explanation and vindication of the Principles and Doctrines of the persons called Quakers ;" with a Dedication to Charles the Second, dated the 25th of November, 1675. It is a logical demonstration of the Propo-' sitions in the Theses Theologicæ ; and is universally considered to shew an uncommon power of mind. It was immediately translated into almost every European language, and presented to all the Ministers at the Congress of Nimeguen.
These are the symbolic and standard books of the Friends. It has been alleged, that they are expressed so guardedly, as to conceal, in some measure, their real doctrine, or, at least, its ultimate tendency. These, it is said, are more easily discoverable from “The Christian Quaker, and his Divine Testimony, vindicated by Scripture, reason, and authorities, against the injurious attempts that have been lately made by several adversaries.”
This work appeared in 1674; the first part of it was written by Penn, and the second by Whithead, one of his most distinguished disciples.
The Confession of Faith of the Eastern Church.
(Referred to in page 19.)
The Title of the Confession, and the Pastoral Letter prefired
to it. The Title of this work is, “ Oplo&ogos Opodoyice This Καθολικης και Αποστολικής Εκκλησιας της Ανατολικης. Ηoc est, Orthodoxa Confessio Catholicæ atque Apostolicæ Ecclesia Orientalis, cum interpretatione Latinâ et Versione Germanica. Præmissa est Historia hujus Opodoylas seu Catechismi, a D: Carlo Gottlob. Hofmann S. S. Theol. Prof. Primar. in Academia Wittebergensi Consist. Past. et circ. Elect. Saron, General. Superintend. Wratislavia, apud Jo. Jacob. Horn. MDCCLI. oct. p. 259,”
The Catechism is preceded by an historical account of its composition and publication : this is followed by an address, or, what would be called in Europe, a pastoral letter, from Nectarius, “ by the grace of God, Patriarch of the holy city of Jerusalem, and all Palestine ; to all orthodox readers, his beloved brethren, and sons in the Lord.” It is dated the 20th Nov. 1662. We are then presented with a letter, of which the following is a literal translation :
“ Parthenius, by the mercy of God, Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome; and Ecumenical Patriarch. Our mediocrity, together with our sacred congregation of chief bishops and clergy present, hath diligently perused a small book, transmitted to us by our true sister, the church of Lesser Russia,
crity, together with hath diligently peruseah of Lesser Russia,
entitled, The Confession of the Orthodox Faith of the Catholic and Apostolic Church of Christ ;" in which the whole subject is treated under the three heads of Faith, Charity, and Hope, in such a manner, that Faith is divided into twelve articles, (to wit, those of the sacred Nicene symbol) Charity into ten precepts, and such other precepts as are contained in the sacred and diviņely inspired books of the Old and New Testament, which Christians are bound to hold : Hope, into the dominical prayer, and the nine beatitudes of the sacred Gospel,
« We have found that this small book follows steadily the doctrines of the Catholic Church, and agrees with the sacred canons, and, in no respect differs from them. As to the rest, to the other part of the book, that which is in the Latin tongue, on the side opposite to the Greek text, we have not referred, in our perusal ; so that we only formally confirm that which is in our vernacular tongue. With our common and synodical sentence, we decree, and we announce to every pious and orthodox Christian, a member of the eastern and apostolic church, that this book is to be diligently read, and not to be rejected. Which, for the perpetual faith and certainty of the fact, we guard by our subscriptions. In the year of. Salvation, 1663, 4th day of March.”
Then folļow the subscriptions of, .“ Parthenius, by the divine mercy, Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome; and Ecumenical Patriarch,
“ Joannicius, by the mercy of God, Pope and Patriarch of the great city of Alexandria, and Judge of the whole world ;
“ Macarius, by the mercy of God, Patriarch of Antioch, the great city of God;
“ Paisius, by the mercy of God, Patriarch of the holy city of Jerusalem ;
“ The Bishops of Ancyra, Larissæ, Chalcedon, Adrianople, Berrhæa, Rhodes, Mythymnæ, Lacedæmon and Chios; and thirteen church officers.
The First Book of the Catechism.
The Catechism is divided into Three Books.
The first Book contains, One Hundred and Twenty-six Questions, and as many Answers. .
II. 1. The first Question is, “What must an Orthodox and Catholic Christian hold and perform, that he may become, at a future time, heir of eternal life?"
The answer is,—“ Right faith and good works; for he, who. observes these, is a good Christian, and hath the hope of eternal salvation : witness the sacred Scripture, (James ii. 24), “ Do. you see that man is justified by works, and not by faith only:". and, a little after, “ For as the body, without the spirit, is dead; so faith, without works, is dead.” The divine Paul adds the same in another place, (1 Timothy, i. 19.), “ Having faith and a good conscience, which some having put away, have been shipwrecked in respect to their faith :” and, in another place, he says, (1 Timothy, iii. 9.), “ Having the mystery of faith with a pure conscience."
The second Question is, “Why should a Christian first believe, and afterwards do good actions ?"-To this it is answered, “ Because none can please God without faith, according to the saying of Paul,” (Heb. xi. 6.), “ It cannot be, that, without faith, any person should please God; for it is necessary that he, who approacheth to God, should believe that he is, and that he is the rewarder of those, who seek him diligently. Therefore, that a Christian should be acceptable to God, and that his works should be grateful to him, it behoveth him, first to have faith ; then, that he should compose and conform his life to the rule of faith."
The third Question is, “ In what things do these two consist?” It is answered, “ In the three theological virtues ; in Faith, in Hope, in Charity.”
This serves as a preliminary chapter,
Faith, it is angustion is,