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· II. 2. The first part of the Catechism begins with the Question, “ What is Faith?” “Faith," it is answered, “ is, according to the blessed Paul, (Heb. xi. 1.) the substance of those things, which are hoped for, and the evidence of those things not seen. And, for this, the antients obtuired a good testimony." Or, faith may be defined thus ; “ The Orthodox, Catholic, and Apostolic Faith, is to believe in the heart, and to profess by the mouth, One God, and three persons :" (TEIOUTOOTUFov), according to the doctrine of Paul himself, (Rom. x. 10.) “ By the heart it is believed to justice : by the mouth, confession is made to salvation.” Moreover, the Orthodox Christian should believe, (Synod. vi. Can. XXXII.) all the articles of faith, which the Catholic and Orthodox Church believes, delivered by our Lord Jesus Christ, through his Apostles, to his Church, and exposed and approved by the Ecumenical Councils ; and these, he is bound to embrace, with true faith, according to the precept of the Apostle, (2 Thess. ii. 13.), • Therefore do you, brethren, persist to hold the tradition which you hate learned from our speech, or by letler.' Again, in another place, (1 Cor. xi. 2.) • I praise you, brethren, because you hold all my words in memory, and because you retain the traditions, as I delivered them to you. From this, it is manifest, that the Articles of Faith owe their authority and approbation, partly to the sacred scripture, partly to ecclesiastical tradition, and the doctrine of the councils, and the Holy Fathers.” In confirmation of this doctrine, a passage from the works of St. Dionysius the Areopagite, (Hier. Ecc. c. 1. page 108, ed. Morell,) is cited,
The Catechism then proceeds in these words : “ The Dogmata of the Church are two in number, and of two kinds : some are consigned in the writings, which are comprised in the divine books of sacred Scripture. Others were delivered by the Apostles, by their living voice. And these are the doctrines, which afterwards were more fully declared by the Councils and the Holy Fathers; and, op those two foundations, faith is superstructed.”
II. 3. By the fifth Question, it is inquired, “ How many are the articles of the Catholic and Orthodox Faith ?!! It is
answered, that “ they are twelve, according to the symbol of the first Council of Nice, and the second of Constantinople. In which councils, all things which appertain to our faith, are so accurately expressed, that nothing more and nothing less should be believed by us, nor should they be believed in any other sense or understanding, than that in which those Fathers understood them.”
II. 4. The Twelve Articles are then successiyely propounded and explained. · In the explanation of the First ARTICLE, I believe in God, the Father Almighty, maker of Hearen and Earth, mạch is said of the being and attributes of the Deity, and the fall of Man; on Providence, Fate, and Free-will; and on the nature and office of Angels. The good Angels are described, as incessantly employed in singing the praises of God. Kingdoms, churches, monasteries, individuals, are said to be committed to their care ; and it is added, that under the direction and pleasure of the Almighty, they render innumerable services to man. The bad Angels are said to have fell from their state of happiness by their own fault, and to be the enemies of man.
The Second Article, “ And in our Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten son of God, and born of the Father before all ages; God of God; begotten, not made, consubstantial to the Father, by whom all things were made:” is expressed in the same
terms as ours. The answer to the ninth Question acknowledges, · unequivocally, the consubstantiality of the son, and proves it by the Three Heavenly Witnesses mentioned in 1 John, v.7.
The Third ARTICLE, as it is expressed in the Roman Catholic and English Liturgies, “ Who for us men and for our salvation, came down from Heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man,” is discussed at some length. It commences at the thirty-seventh Question. In the Greek text, as it is given in the Catechism, there may be thought to be more than a literal variation from that of the Roman Catholic and English versions. The expression in the Greek text is oqgxwlévt' éx Ilvsúmatos cyíou, kad
Μαρίας της Παρθένου, incarnatus est er Spiritu Sancto et Maria Virgine--incarnate of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary.
On the part, which mentions that the Son of God " was incarnate of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary,” ļhe catechism inculcates the necessity and utility of devotion to the Virgin Mary, in the following words, in its 40, 41, and 42 answers $ As Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, was held worthy to fulfil so great a mystery, all the Orthodox, as is just and pious, ought, in justice and according to her merit, to praise and venerate her, as the mother of our Lord Jesus Christ; or rather, as the mother of God. For which reason, the church has framed à salutation of her, from the words of the Archangel and St. Elizabeth ; and to this, the church has made a small addition of her own.” It states the salutation in the following words: “O Virgin! Mother of God! Full of Grace! the Lord is with thee! Blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed the fruit of thy womb; because thou hast begotten the Suviour of our souls:
This the church, in virtue of her right and authority, has ordered, --that the blessed Virgin should be frequently and earnestly worshipped, and celebrated by this salutation. Moreover, the saluta tion, when it calls the Virgin, Full of Grace, teaches, that because she is the Mother of God, she partakes of divine grace, in a greater degree, than any other created being; and, on that account, deservedly extols her above the cherubs and seraphs. For, advanced far beyond the choirs of the Angels, she stands with all her honors and dignity at the right hand of her son, according to the language of David, (Psalm xlv.) · The Queen sits at your right hand, in gilded robes, dressed in various colours. Now the Orthodox Christian ought to recite the salutation, and implore the intercession of the Virgin with great devotion. For the prayer of the Virgin is of great weight with the piety of the Son."
The Fourth ARTICLE, “ was crucified for us, under Pontius Pilate, suffered and was buried,” is the subject of the 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, and 51st Questions and Answers. The 50th Answer inculcates the necessity of the frequent use of the sign of the cross, and quotes St. Cyril, the Bishop of
Jerusalem, in the beginning of the 5th century, for his recommendation to the faithful, to make " the Venerable Sign of the Cross, when they eat, drink, sit, walk, speak, or are silent ; to begin nothing without previously making it, to make it at home, on the road, by day, by night, and in every place." (Catec. XIII.) The Catechism then describes, in the following words, the method of making the sign of the cross : “ First, with the three first fingers, touch the forehead, and say, “ In the name of the Father :' then, bring down the hand, in the same form, to the breast, and say, ' And of the Son:' then, move the hand to the right shoulder, and say, ' And of the Holy Ghost,' moving the hand, while you say these words, from the right to the left shoulder, and conclude with the word · Amen.'” This form of making the sign of the cross differs from the form, in use in the Western Church. The words are the same, and the figure of the cross is observed; but, in the Western Church, the hand is moved from the breast to the left shoulder, and thence to the right. Some have supposed that this difference between the Greek and Western Churches is owing to the difference of opinion between them, on the procession of the Holy Ghost: But Cardinal Bona, (Op. 824), mentions the form used in the Greek Church, as a form used in ancient times, in some parts of the Latin Churches. In making the sign of the cross, the Greek Priests generally bow to the ground, and almost touch it with their foreheads; their ease and rapidity in doing it can scarcely be conceived by those, by whom it has not been seen,
The Fifth ARTICLE, “ who, on the third day rose again according to the Scriptures,” employs the 52, 53, and 54th Questions and Answers.
The Sixth Article is expressed in the following words », “ who ascended into Heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father;"—and employs one Question and Answer. In the latter, this article is said to contain four articles of Faith :Ist. “ That Christ ascended into Heaven, and, with glory and praise, took his seat at the right hand of the Father, in the same body as that in which he had suffered on the cross, and rose from the dead. --2ndly. That he ascended into Heaven, so
far only as he was man; for that, as God, he always was in Heaven, and all other places.--3rdly. That Christ, having once assumed human nature from the blessed Virgin, never laid it down, and that, clothed with the same body, he will come to judgment.—4thly. That Christ, now, is in Heaven only; and is not on earth, in that mode of his body, which he formerly used, while he resided on earth; but that, in the sacramental mode, in which he is present in the sacred table, he is, by transubstantiation, present on earth, the same Son of God, both God and Man. For the substance of bread is changed into the substance of the sacred body, and the substance of wine into the substance of his precious blood :-wherefore it behoves us to venerate and adore the sacred Eucharist, as our Saviour Jesus Christ himself.”
The Seventh Article is expressed in these terms : « and shall come again in glory, to judge the living and the dead, of whose kingdom there shall be no end ;” and employs the 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, and 68th Questions and Answers. These articles explain the doctrines of the Greek Church on the condition of the dead. It seems to consist of the 8 following points:-1. That Christ is to return to earth, and judge all mankind :-2. That he is to judge them according to their thoughts, words, and deeds :-3. That a sentence of eternal happiness or eternal misery will then be pronounced on each individual, but that the judgment on each will be generally manifested, not separately pronounced :-4. Yet that, though each person at his death is separately judged, the sentence is not executed till the day of judgment, their knowledge of it forming between their deaths and the universal judgment, their happiness or misery:-5. That the happiness of the good, and the misery of the wicked, in the next life, differs in degree, but endures for eternity :-6. That there is no middle place, in which the soul is purged of his crimes by temporary suffering :—7. But that many are snatched and liberated from the gates of hell, in consequence of the pious works and prayers of the survivors; and particularly in consequence of the unbloody sacrifice, which the church offers for the living and the dead :-8. But that the dead