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them disjoined from his soul and divinity; but all and whole living Jesus is entirely contained under either species : so that whosoever receives under one kind is truly partaker of the whole sacrament; he is not deprived either of the body or the blood of Christ. True it is,
11. Our Saviour left unto us his body and blood, under two distinct species, or kinds ; in doing of which he instituted not only a sacrament, but also a sacrifice; a commemorative sacrifice, distinctly shewing his death and bloody passion, until he come. For as the sacrifice of the cross was performed by a distinct effusion of blood; so is that sacrifice commemorated in that of the altar, by a distinction of the symbols. Jesus therefore is here given, not only to us, but for us; and the church thereby is enriched with a true, proper and propitiatory sacrifice usually termed the mass.
12. Catholics renounce all divine worship and adoration of images and pictures ; God alone we worship and adore ; nevertheless we place pictures in our churches, to reduce our wandering thoughts and to enliven our memories towards hea. venly things. Further, we shew a respect to the images of Christ and his saints, beyond what is due to every profane figure; not that we can believe any divinity or virtue to reside in them, for which they ought to be honoured, but because the honour given to pictures is referred to the prototype, or thing represented. In like manner,
13. There is a kind of honour and respect due to the bible, to the cross, to the name of Jesus, to churches, to the sacraments, &c. as things peculiarly appertaining to God; and to kings, magistrates, and superiors on earth; to whom honour is due, honour may be given, without any derogation to the majesty of God, or that divine worship which is appropriate to him. Moreover. • 14. Catholics believe, that the blessed saints in heaven, replenished with charity, pray for us their fellow-members here on earth; that they rejoice at our conversion: that seeing God, they see and know in him all things suitable to their happy state : But God may be inclinable to hear their requests made in our behalf, and for their sakes may grant us many favours; therefore we believe that it is good and profitable to desire their intercession. Can this manner of invocation be more injurious to Christ our mediator, than it is for one Christian to beg the prayers of another here on earth ? However, Catholics are not taught so to rely on the prayers of others, as to neglect their own duty to God; in imploring his divine mercy and goodness; in mortifying the deeds of the flesh; in despising the world; in loving and serving God and their neighbour; in following the footsteps of Christ our Lord, who is the way, the truth, and the life: to whom be honour, and glory for ever and ever. Amen.
On the Reunion of Christians.
It was the intention of the writer of these pages, to close his account of the symbolic books of the Christian Churches, with a succinct HISTORY OF THE ATTEMPTS, WHICH HAVE BEEN MADE AT DIFFERENT TIMES, FOR THEIR REUNION. The subject has been exhausted by a learned and interesting work, published at Paris, “De la Réunion des Communions Chrétiennes ; ou Histoire des Négotiations, Conférences, Correspondances qui ont eu lieu, des projets et des plans qui ont été formées à ce sujet, depuis la naissance du Protestanisme jusqu'à présent. Par M. Tabaraud, prêtre de la ci-de'vant congrégation de l'Oratoire. Paris, 1808, 1 vol. 8vo." An excellent sketch of these attempts had been previously given by Doctor Mosheim, in his Ecclesiastical History, Cent. XVI. sect. 2. part 2. c. 1. und Cent. XVII. sect. 2. c. 1. To these publications the reader is referred :—the present Essay may be found to contain, 1. A general view of the attempts made after the Reformation, to unite the Lutheran and Calvinist churches : 11. Some account of the attempts made at different times by the sovereigns of France for the conversion of their protestant subjects : 11. The correspondence of Bossuet and Leibnitz, under the auspices of Lewis the Fourteenth, for the reunion of the Lutheran Churches to the Church of Rome : IV. Some account of an attempt made in the reign of George the First, to reunite the Church of England to the Church of Rome: v. And some general remarks on the reunion of Christians. Under the first of these heads, a short mention will be made of
the members of the Protestant Church of the United Brethren, called vulgarly Moravians.
The great division of Protestant Churches is into the Lutheran and Calvinist communions. The Abbé Tabaraud relates in the work, which we have just cited, not fewer than fifteen different attempts to effect a re-union of their churches. In reading his account and the account given by Mosheim of these attempts, there appears to the writer, to have been on each side something to commend and something to blame. It seems to him, that the Lutherans deserve credit for the open and explicit manner, in which, on these occasions, they propounded the tenets of their creed to the Calvinists ; that the conduct of the Calvinists was more liberal and conciliating; but that, on the other hand, the conduct of the Lutherans towards the Calvinists was generally repulsive and sometimes deserving a much harsher name; while the conduct of the Calvinists was sometimes chargeable with ambiguity. “ It was deplorable,” says Mosheim, (Cent. xvii. sect. 2. part 2. art. 3.)“ to see two churches, “ which had discovered an equal degree of pious zeal and forti“ tude in throwing off the despotic yoke of Rome, divided among “ themselves, and living in discords, that were highly detrimental “ to the interests of religion, and the well-being of society. “ Hence, several eminent divines and leading men both among “ the Lutherans and Calvinists, sought anxiously after some me“ thod of uniting the two churches, though divided in their opin“ions, in the bonds of Christian charity and ecclesiastical commu“ nion. A competent knowledge of human nature and human “ passions was sufficient to persuade these wise and pacific media
,"tors, that a perfect uniformity in religious opinions was not « practicable, and that it would be entirely extravagant to imagine “that any of these communities could ever be brought to embrace “ universally, and without limitation, the doctrines of the other. “They made it, therefore, their principal business to persuade “ those, whose spirits were inflamed with the heat of controversy, “ that the points in debate between the two churches were not o essential to true religion ;-that the fundamental doctrines of “ Christianity were received and professed in both communions; " and that the difference of opinion between the contending parties, “turned either upon points of an abstruse and incomprehensible “nature, or upon matters of indifference, which neither tended to “make mankind wiser or better, and in which the interests of ge“ nuine piety were in no wise concerned. Those, who viewed “ things in this point of light, were obliged to acknowledge, that .“ the diversity of opinions between the two churches was by no “ means a sufficient reason for their separation ; and that of con6 sequence they were called, by the dictates of that yospel, which “ they both professed, to live, not only in the mutual exercise of “Christian charity, but also to enter into the fraternal bonds of « church communion. The greatest part of the reformed doctors “ seemed disposed to acknowledge, that the errors of the Luther“ans were not of a momentous nature, nor of a pernicious ten“ dency; and that the fundamental doctrines of Christianity had “not undergone any remarkable alteration in that communion; “ and thus, on their side, an important step was made towards “peace and union between the two churches. But the greatest “ part of the Lutheran doctors declared, that they could not form “a like judgment with respect to the doctrine of the Reformed “churches; they maintained tenaciously the importance of the “points which divided the two communions, and affirmed, that * a considerable part of the controversy turned upon the funda“mental principles of all religion and virtue. It is not at all sur“prising, that this steadiness and constancy of the Lutherans was * branded by the opposite party with the epithets of morose ob“stinacy, supercilious arrogance, and such like odious denomina“tions. The Lutherans were not behind hand with their adver