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Mr. Salt alludes to some other passage noticed by Olivier, in which the names of Paisley' and · Mavro' were now found inscribed at its extremity.
The next enterprize of Mr. Caviglia was to examine the chamber first discovered by Mr. Davison, which he effected from the great gallery by means of a rope-ladder. This discovery being noticed in our manuscript memoir as mentioned only by the travellers Niebuhr and Bruce, proves, as we suspected, that Mr. Salt had not seen Mr. Walpole's late publication The sides and roof of this chanber are described as being coated with red granite of the finest polish ; and Caviglia ascertained that the unevenness of the floor was accasioned by its being formed of the individual blocks of granite which constituted the roof of the chamber below; they must therefore be wedged in on the principle of the arch. Mr. Davison ventions the same thing; and the bats' dung of a foot deep, with which the floor was in his time covered, was now increased to eighteen inches.
The laborious exertions of Mr. Caviglia in clearing out these channels and chambers and passages do not appear to have been rewarded with any new discovery of antiquities; nor does he seem to think that any new light has been thrown on the long contested question, as to the original intention of those stupendous fabrics. That the main object was to cover the remains of their projectors, or of the priests, or both, there seems to be no reasonable grounds to doubt; and we trust, that before the contents of the sarcophagus, recently discovered in the pyramid of Cephrenes, shall be dispersed and lost, the fact will be ascertained whether the bones of a human subject have not been mixed with those of a cow. Neither can we. doubt that many other secret passages and chambers yet remain to be discovered in those gloomy mansions of mystery and wonder. The conjecture of Pauw is by no means improbable, that the Serapeum or temple of Serapis, which Strabo places to the west of Memphis, is the central spot which protects and covers the grand entrance to all the numerous adits or galleries leading to the foundations of the pyramids of Gizeh; and, perhaps, to those of Saccara and Dashour, between which and the Delta, Memphis is reported by the ancients to have been situated, and its ruins recognized, near Metrahenny, by Pococke, Davison, and other modern travellers. In fact, it appears that the whole intermediate space between the borders of the lake Mæris and Gizeh is so completely occupied by subterraneous catacombs, temples, pyramids and mausoleums, as to render the supposition most probable of its being one vast cemetery, the centre of which was occupied by the celebrated city of Memphis; and that subterranean communications existed between the several edifices, from the pyramid of Cheops
to the labyrinth with its three thousand chambers, one half of which, being buried in the excavated rock, the Father of history was not permitted to visit. Mr. Caviglia has to a certain degree determined a long disputed point,-how far the living rock had been made an auxiliary in the construction of the pyramids. This rock, which shews itself externally at the north-eastern angle, appears in the main passage, and again close to the inouth of the well, the highest projection into the body of the pyramid being about eighty feet from the level of its external base.
But much more, we are fully persuaded, yet remains to be discovered within the pyramids. We have now the knowledge of three distinct chambers in that of Cheops, all of which had evidently been opened by the Saracens, (perhaps by the Romans, long before the arrival of the former in Egypt;) but for any thing that is known to the contrary, there may be three hundred, and might be ten times three hundred such chambers yet undiscovered. The magnitude of those stupendous masses makes no very striking impression on the mind from a mere contemplation of their dimensions in figures; and travellers mostly agree in their expressions of disappointinent on first approaching them ; being able with difficulty to persuade themselves of their vast bulk till some familiar object occurs to enable them to make the comparison. When we stated the pyramid of Cheops (supposing it solid throughout) to contain six times the mass of stone that will be contained in the great Break-water across Plymouth sound, it was a comparison of one gigantic accumulation of materials with another somewhat less gigantic, and helped only to give a comparative view of the labour, and quantity of materials respectively consumed in these two great fabrics—but, to assist the mind to form a just idea of the immensity of the mass, let us take the great chamber of the sarcophagus, whose dimensions (it being about 35 feet long, 174 broad, and 187 high*)—are those of a tolerably large sized drawing-room-which, as the solid contents of the pyramid are found to exceed 85,000,000 cubic feet, forms nearly be part of the whole; so that, after leaving the contents of every second chamber solid by way of separation, there might be three thousand seven hundred chambers, each equal in size to the sarcophagus chamber, within the pyramid of Cheops. How little then do we yet know of the real state and dis-, position of the interior of this stupendous edifice !
The next operations of Mr. Caviglia were directed to a minute examination of those vumerous ruined edifices and tumuli which, when viewed from the top of the great pyramid, appear in countless multitudes, scattered without order among the other pyramids, as the graves in a church-yard round the church, and extend on the north and on the south along the left bank of the Nile, as far as the eye can reach. These remains of antiquity have been noticed by Pococke and other travellers, but we believe never examined with that attention which they are now found to deserve. The successful efforts of Mr. Caviglia in laying open the interior apartments of several of these will give them a new interest in the eyes of future travellers. The stone buildings, which Mr. Salt supposes to be mausoleums, are generally of an oblong form, having their walls slightly inclined from the perpendicular inwards, the peculiar characteristic of ancient Egyptian architecture; flat-roofed, with a sort of parapet round the outside, formed of stones, rounded at the top and rising about a foot above the level of the terrace. The walls are constructed of large masses of stones, of irregular shape, seldom rectangular, though neatly fitted to each other somewhat in the manner of the Cyclopean buildings in various parts of Greece. Some have door-ways ornamented above with a volute, which is covered with hieroglyphics, while others have only square apertures in the sides, gradually narrowing inwards, for the purpose of admitting light into the chambers. These doors and windows are found invariably on the northern and eastern sides--perhaps because these two sides are the least liable to be incommoded by the sand from the Lybian desert.
* These are the measurements of Mr. Caviglia.
The first of these edifices, examined by Mr. Caviglia, when freed of the sand and rubbish with which it was choaked, was found to have the inside walls covered with stucco and embellished with rude paintings, one of which, though much defaced, evidently represented the sacred boat, and another a procession of figures, each carrying a lotus in his hand. At the southern extremity were several mouldering mummies laid one over the other in a recumbent posture, with a few fragments of wooden cases. Many of the bones remained entire, and among the rest was a skull with part of its cloth covering inscribed with hieroglyphics.
The second edifice he examined had no paintings, but contained several fragments of statues, both of calcareous stone and granite. In one of the chambers were found two pieces composing the entire body of a figure almost as large as life, in the act of walking, with the left leg stretched forwards, and the two arms hanging down and resting on the thighs. From the position of this statue, and from that of a pedestal, and the foot of another statue in a different chamber, both facing the openings into the respective chambers, Mr. Salt is of opinion that they were so placed for the express purpose of being seen by the friends of the deceased from an adjoining corridor, the statues themselves bearing, as he thinks, evident marks of being intended as portraits of the persons whom they were meant to represent. The several parts were marked with a strict attention to nature and coloured after life, having artificial eyes of glass, or transparent stones, to give them the air of living men. A head was discovered, but it did not exactly fit the statue in question, though it probably belonged to the foot and pedestal. “This head, says Mr. Salt, even in its present state, I consider as extremely valuable from its similarity in style and features to that of the Sphinx, having the same facial line, the same sweetness of expression and marking in the mouth, and the same roundness and pecu-' liarity which characterize the rest of the features, circumstances which tend to prove its almost equal antiquity.' In removing the fragments, eight hours were employed in enlarging the opening of the chamber, to enable the workmen to force them through; so that the statue must have been placed in its cell prior to the finishing of the edifice. Many of the granite and alabaster fragments found in these chambers give a higher idea of Egyptian sculpture than has usually prevailed; a close attention, it seems, being shown to the marking of the joints and muscles. In the fragment of a leg, Mr. Salt observed a fullness of the parts, and strictness of proportion not unlike the school of Michael Angelo'—while,' he adds, the alabaster fragments evince that the Egyptians, in finishing, were not behind even the sculptors of Greece. Nor is Mr. Salt singular in bearing this honourable testimony to the skill of the ancient artists of Egypt. Mr. Hamilton, after giving an animated description of the sculptures which cover the eastern wing of the propylon of the temple of Luxor, observes, It was impossible to view and to reflect upon a picture so copious and so detailed as this I have just described, without fancying that I here saw the original of many of Homer's battles, the portrait of some of the historical narratives of Herodotus, and one of the principal ground-works of the description of Diodorus: and, to complete the gratification, we felt that had the artist been better acquainted with the rules and use of perspective, the performance might have done credit to the genius of a Michael-Angelo or a Julio Romano.'
In another of these stone edifices was a boat of a large size, sculptured, with a square sail, different from any now employed on the Nile. In the first chamber of this building were paintings, in bas-relief, of men, deer, and birds—men engaged in planning and preparing certain pieces of furniture, hewing blocks of wood, and pressing out skins either of wine or oil. The top of the second chamber is hollowed out in the forın of an arch. " In this apartment,' says Mr. Salt, the figures and bieroglyphics are singularly interesting and beautiful; on the right is represented a quarrel been some boatmen, executed with great spirit; and a little farther
VOL. XIX. NO, XXXVIII.
on, a number of men engaged in the different pursuits of agriculture---plowing, hoeing up the ground, bringing in their corn on asses, stowing it in the magazines, and in other similar occupations. Ou the west are several vases painted in the most vivid colours; and on the south side a band of musicians, playing on the harp, flute, and a species of clarionet, together with a group of dancing women, tinged of a yellow colour, as is the case in most of the temples of Upper Egypt. In the same building are two other chambers, one unembellished, the other having carved on its walls a variety of figures and hieroglyphics. In a fifth chamber were several hieroglyphics on a thick coat of white plaster, executed, as it would appear, with a wooden stamp or mould, .
Many others of these oblong buildings were cleared out, and found to consist of different numbers of apartments, variously disposed, but similarly decorated with bas-reliefs and paintings, according, perhaps, to the wealth or caprice of those who erected them; one in particular, from the delicacy of its colours, its general pleasing effect, and superior style of execution, was deemed deserving of the closest attention. Mr. Salt observes that in all the mausoleums which they opened were found fragments of bitumen, great quantities of mummy-cloth and of human bones, which seemed to remove all doubt of their having served the purpose of entombing the dead. A very important circumstance yet remains to be noticed. In one apartment or another of all these monumental edifices was a deep shaft or well, from the bottom of which a narrow passage conducted to a subterranean chamber. One of these shafts, cleared out by Mr. Caviglia, was sixty feet deep, and in the chamber a little to the south of the lower extremity, was standing, without a lid, a plain but highly finished sarcophagus, of the same dimensions nearly as that in the chamber of the pyramid of Cheops, but of a superior polish. This discovery supplies a strong argument in favour of the pyramids being tombs. In summing up the result of the researches made in these mansions of the dead, (if such they really be,) Mr. Salt observes, I shall here venture to offer a few cursory remarks on the very peculiar specimens of sculpture-painting above described, which may fairly be considered as presenting the most ancient examples of art now extant in the world.'
• The objects in which the artists have best succeeded are the animals and birds, several instances of which may be pointed out that are executed with a boldness of outline, and an attention to nature in the form, which evince a considerable progress in design. The human figures, it is true, are, in general, drawn sadly out of proportion, though the action in which they are engaged is almost always intelligibly and, sometimes, energetically expressed.