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"Since the beginning of the 19th century, the quantity of grain brought into consumption has had an enormous augmentation by the opening of the Black Sea. So long as the countries which encompass it were under the power of the Turks, it was only the dominions of the Sultan which drew from them their supplies; but, since they became subject to Russia, the passage of the Bosphorus has been opened to other nations, and the vast steppes of New Russia have been peopled as if by enchantment; the provinces, formerly Polish, have found egress for the excess of their products by the new opening which is now presented; and all other agricultural countries are convinced that they cannot enter into competition with these."

"As industry, in the two principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, limits itself to the culture of raw produce, all other merchandise must be imported thither from abroad. Austria has taken upon herself to supply this want; English merchandise is supplied in but small quantities, and the fair of

*Note by Author.-In 1834, an English ship, laden with manufactures, arrived at Galacz, to compete with the articles brought by the Austrian steam-boat. There is no doubt but that the English may much injure the vent for Austrian (Russian?) merchandise.

Leipsig furnished them only some stuffs; such as cloths, cottons, silks, and linens."

"The articles for which Russia has till now preserved a monopoly in Moldavia and Wallachia, are, tarred cordage, sail-cloth, caviare, and hempseed oil, and she can rival Austria in leather, articles of iron, steel and copper, cordage, coarse linen, ordinary woollens, flannel, all sorts of pottery and porcelain, peltries and paper. In 1833 there were imported into Moldavia by the barrier of Scouliani, such articles to the value of 680,000 roubles. Russian iron, thongh dearer, would often be preferred to that of England, on account of its superior quality, if its form were better adapted to the purpose. it is used for, and if it were brought forward in smaller bars. The candles and soap also of Russia could be sold there to advantage; but those in the principalities who deal in Russian articles, get them generally from Kichineff (in Bessarabia); and the Russian shops at Ibrail are even at present supplied from the stores at Bukarest. No one has direct intercourse with the manufacturers of Russia; it is only the cordage, candles and soap made at Odessa, which are sent directly into the ports of the Danube."

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Although the three principal mouths of the Danube are in the power of Russia, it is only a small number of her products that is exported by the two ports of Bessarabia, Ismail and Reni. It is the towns of Galacz and Ibrail, the only "debouchés" of Moldavia and Wallachia, which pour the superfluity of these rich provinces into the commerce of the Black Sea. The protecting sceptre of Russia has created these formidable rivals of herself."

"If the obstacles which have hitherto impeded the navigation of the Danube come to be entirely removed, this will much facilitate the vent of Austrian articles of merchandise in the provinces, and will open up for some of them a way to arrive at other countries."


Ibrail, receiving the products of Wallachia, must have a greater exportation than Galacz, which acts only upon Moldavia, the extent of which is much less. But the import trade of this last town, which has always been greater than that of Ibrail, will become still more so, in consequence of the communication by steam-boats, which an Austrian company has just established between Vienna and Constantinople. The four steam-boats intended for this trade, will ply between Presburg and Pest,

Pest and Moldavia, Orsowa and Galacz, Galacz and Constantinople. An attempt is to be made to remove the rocks which impede the navigation between Moldavia and Orsowa.

"The advantages of this navigation for the trade of the Principalities, which consists principally in exchanges for the products of Austria, are incalculable. Galacz, especially, will gain by it greatly, as an entrepôt for Austrian goods, which will be sent thence to the Levant, and to the ports of the Black Sea. Austria may even export by the Danube the wheat of the Banat, which can be bought on the spot at 11 roubles the tchetwert, and is said to be of a superior quality. The hemp of Hungary, of which the English have already made great purchases, and formed depôts at Apathin and at Eszek (whence it is sent by water to Siszeck and Carlstadt, and from these places by land to Trieste), might here find perhaps an easier route than by Trieste; as well as building-wood, which is, at present, sent with difficulty to Fiume.

"It is evident that the ports of Ismael and Reni, having no other resource but a small portion of Bessarabia; reduced, in their exportation, almost to one article, grain; and without the possibility of

ever having a considerable importation, from the absence of issues for it,-have, by no means, a brilliant prospect for the future. Odessa, lying nearer, by 200 wersts, to the centre of the empire, must exclude them, by her immense means, from all competition for the trade of Russia. But in rivalship, on the other hand, with Galacz and Ibrail, which are likewise about to cultivate virgin countries, and of great extent,-Ismail and Reni must, of necessity, attach themselves to these giants who threaten to overwhelm them. So long as those who are engaged in the trade of Ibrail and Galacz shall be free from every impost, it would be necessary at least to reserve to the merchants of Bessarabia, the same immunity, to prevent their leaving the country, as many of them have already done. Reni, which is only 15 versts from Galacz, might maintain considerable connexion with that place, if there were established for persons coming from Wallachia a quarantine of only 4 days, as is the case at other points of the frontier, as at Leovo and Scouliani. If even the trade between these two places did not become very great, the frequent communications which would take place would be enough to raise again the little town of Reni, whose inhabitants are

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