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"By putting the Russian stamp upon the iron of their country, which is of a very superior quality, but which costs 7 to 8 piastres less, the English have destroyed the principal branch of Russian trade. The ukase of 1831 has inflicted an additional injury, in promoting the commerce of the English at this point. They export from Trebizonde, Persian silk, tobacco, wool, wax, opium, box and walnut wood, the value of which amounts to 3,000,000 piastres per annum.

"What means can Russia adopt for rivalling the English in this locality?"*

* The means she is adopting.-ED.


The humble Petition of the undersigned Merchants of London and others, interested in the Trade with Turkey, Persia, and the Levant, strongly impressed with the opinion of the imminent peril in which that trade is placed by the past acts and apparent designs of Russia in these quarters.


1st. That Russia, in order to attain great manufacturing and trading pre-eminence, has adopted system of commercial policy decidedly restrictive and adverse to all principles of reciprocity, and particularly to trade with Great Britain, and that she endeavours to procure the adoption of such principles in every country where she acquires influence.

2nd. That Turkey, on the contrary, has manifested at all periods and continues to shew the strongest disposition to leave commerce free from all legislative trammels or imposts, and to encourage friendly commercial intercourse with this

country; but that of late years restrictions and local abuses have been introduced into the export trade of Turkey, mainly by means of the extraordinary influence which the Russian Government has acquired over the Government of that country, which restrictions are highly prejudicial to the interests of your Petitioners, and of British commerce generally, and that these injuries are being extended daily through the increase of the influence before stated.

3rd. That it appears to your Petitioners that the Russian Government, by the extension of such interference with the first principles of Turkish and Persian commercial policy, (any change in which policy must materially impede the development of the great natural resources of these countries) aims at the disorganization of both Turkey and Persia, with the view to great political and mercantile results at variance with every recognized British interest.

4th. That Turkey and Persia having vast populations ready and willing to receive all our staple manufactures, and much of our Colonial produce, the most beneficial results will accrue to Great Britain by her extending to the Governments of

these countries that moral and political support which will enable them to increase the cultivation and exportation of many of their valuable products, which are of staple consumption in this country, and by which alone they can make return for a larger quantity of manufactures.

For these reasons we feel justified in calling the immediate attention of your Honourable House to the state of our commercial relations with Turkey and Persia, and we pray that your Honourable House will take such steps as may obtain a removal of the restrictions we complain of, and may extend, under adequate protection, this most valuable and rising portion of British trade.


Extract of a Letter, dated Cracow, April 7, 1836.

We have received accounts from our Exiles, who, on their way to Trieste, have every where been greeted with the deepest interest and succoured by the populations. Thus the whole of Europe testifies its pity, but nothing more.

They are at the present moment shut up in the Castle of Trieste, where they are made to wait for transports. Amongst them are to be found Prince Gedroye, M. Janiszewicz, formerly Prefect of the Palatinate of Sandomir, M. Wiercinski, Doctor Terlecki, &c. The entire number of the refugees carried away from hence amounts to more than a thousand. A new census of the population is now commenced. This work is directed by an Austrian officer, and is to be reviewed by a Commission named by the three Courts for the purpose of striking out all the inhabitants who have arrived since the year 1821. If this measure is executed the population of the town will be diminished by nearly 10,000 inhabitants.

The evacuation is announced for the 15th. Nevertheless, General Kaufmann is making preparations for a grand parade in honour of the Emperor of Austria, whose name day is the 18th; besides, what signifies the presence of the troops on the territory, since the Conference of the Residents remains, and may at any moment call them back. The Conference of Residents has usurped the Sovereign power. This circumstance is much more grave than a temporary occupation would be, however violent the proceeding.

The Senate decrees no further acts without saying,

"The Senate, having received the sanction of the Conference of the Residents of the Protecting Courts, orders," &c. &c.

The greater part of the soldiers of the Austrian corps are natives

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