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of Gallicia, and live on good terms with the inhabitants. But the officers dread an explosion of despair on the part of the Cracovians. The spies of the police have spread the rumour of a projected massacre. The officers at first believed it, and now they blush for their credulity.

The Ex-President of the Republic, Wiegloglowski has addressed to Prince Metternich a Memoir by which he maintains, that "Summoned by the Conference of the three Residents, he had for a long time solicited passports for a small number of persons who had been designated as turbulent; but that he had not obtained these passports from any of the three Courts whose possessions surround the territory of Cracow; he calls to mind that to answer the uneasiness expressed by the Conference on the subject of the Militia of the Republic, and of the number of refugees admitted into this Militia, and of the degree of authority that this force might in case of need give to the Senate, he had long since offered to increase the amount of this militia by recruiting from the inhabitants of the territory-but that this proposition remained without any answer.

"In a word, he maintains that the Residents desired the inconveniences which subsequently gave a motive for the occupation. With respect to the pretended powerlessness of the Senate, he observes, that on the simple demand of this authority five hundred refugees repaired to Podgoree without compulsion; resistance and presumed revolts were spoken of, but nothing of the kind has appeared; and even the execution of the rigours which had been ordered only caused tears to appear in the eyes of those who were thereby reduced to despair.'

The Bishop of Cracow is not the only victim of the religious persecution exercised by the Russians against Catholicism. The Bishop of Podlachie has also incurred the displeasure of the Emperor Nicolas. Driven from his diocese he lives in destitution. Latterly he commissioned his Chaplain to sell a gold snuff box. The proprietor of the neighbourhood to whom this box was presented sent it back to the Bishop filled with gold pieces.

• An admirable article on the affairs of Cracow has just appeared in the British and Foreign Quarterly Review, No. IV. for April.—ED.

THE speech of Sir Stratford Canning on the 18th of March, on the occupation of Cracow, so clearly developing the sound principles of a truly British policy, that any comment on our part would savour of presumption, terminated with "the expression of a hope that some step might be taken by Parliament to mitigate the sufferings of the unfortunate individuals who are to be shipped off to America."

The infringement of the law and rights of nations by the forcible abduction of the natives of an independent state through the agents of a foreign power, which can exercise no legal jurisdiction over them, is a question deeply interesting to the statesmen of Europe and the United States. The expulsion of the Morescoes from Spain, incompatible as it was with the principles of humanity, did not involve the separation of families. The father was not separated from his children, nor the husband from the wife; and although torn from the land which contained the ashes of their forefathers, they were allowed to convey to another and a neighbouring shore, the elements of a new home and the living objects of their earthly affections.

What the feelings of the Americans will be on the arrival on their shores of exiles from Cracow, may be easily imagined. But can the enlightened benevolence that will animate every community amongst our Anglo-Saxon brethren, compensate to these unhappy men for the apathy of Europe? What must be their sensations on passing the rock of Gibraltar, when their last glance of despair rests on that banner on which the sun never sets, and dwells on the scene where, in a few short hours, one English arm scattered to the winds the powers of despotism, and identified the name of England with the liberation of the world?


The gentlemanlike style of the Letters in the "Times" of the 20th and 22d ult., addressed to the Editor of the Portfolio, under the signature of "Sulpicius," entitled them to an earlier notice on our part, but with every desire of replying to the arguments of the writer we are compelled to postpone our remarks until we expose in more minute detail the whole drama of Russian Diplomacy as connected with the origin and negotiation of the Treaty of July the 6th.

In the mean time we hope that "Sulpicius" will not suffer himself to be deterred by our silence from continuing his criticisms of our opinions, the discussion of which, we feel convinced, will serve the purposes of truth, and thus conduce to the national interest. We should be glad, however, to be favoured with any observations from "Sulpicius," or any other quarter, which may tend to prove

that our notions of the finesse and skill of Russian Diplomatists have been in any degree exaggerated, for we are not conscious of having hitherto ventured on a single assertion which cannot be substantiated by evidence, and which may not be fully borne out in the progress of this work.



Extract of a Letter from Cracow, April 15th.

"THERE is to be a grand parade on the 19th in honour of the Emperor Ferdinand, after which the troops composing the corps of occupation will commence their march to quit the territory of Cracow.

"An Austrian detachment of five hundred men and fifty cavalry will, however, remain. The Senate, that is to say, its President, has demanded, they say, this prolongation of their stay, to give time to reorganise the militia of the town, which has been disbanded.

"The three Powers had in vain sought to obtain that the Senate should previously demand the occupation; but since then the President of this body has been induced to lay down his office, and the Conference of the three Residents has replaced him arbitrarily, and contrary to all the laws, by a man who will now demand, in the name of the Senate, all that they desire.

"It happened accidentally that, on the very day of the announcement of the evacuation, a grand menagerie arrived at Cracow, on which the people amused themselves with repeating, that the lion ' of England had put to flight the troops of the three Powers.'

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"We had received, a few days before, the details of the debate brought on in the English House of Commons by the inquiries of Sir Stratford Canning, on the subject of the armed occupation of our city."


ALTHOUGH the following translation from the German is only a review of the first Numbers of the Portfolio, yet it contains so much interesting information, and is so ably drawn up, that we cannot abstain from reproducing it. The principal cause, however, of our doing so is to allow the people of this country to appreciate the effect silently produeed on the public mind in Germany.

One of the most singular incidents connected with this periodical is, that although its tendency has been of a nature hostile to the views of those who entertain aggressive projects, still it has not been prohibited in any Continental State.

Two reasons may be assigned for this. ·.

The first, that it has no community or participation with any principles, or with any party, as regards internal government. Hitherto the aggressive views of Russia, as of Prussia, have been opposed in the spirit of the French Propagande. The opposition manifested so acrimoniously by Austria and Prussia, and with such appearance of



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