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ob ea dandam juxta verum eorum pretium, quando primum detinebantur ; quantum vero ad damnorum compensationem, iis ex declaratione concilii per chartulam suam 15. Novembris anno 1652 in centum redactis declaratoque a consilio, sibi deliberatum non esse, reparationem summo jure arguere atque exigere, sed quatenus duntaxat aequitati et rationi consentaneum erit, quodque testari possit propensum ad pacem animum suum, dictus dominus legatus sese obstrinxerit hoc supposito, damna resarcienda fore: atque in quinto dictorum praeliminarium dictus legatus in se ulterius receperit, quod omnes naves et bona Anglorum, quae a principibus Ruperto et Mauritio vel a quacunque nave sub eorum praefectura in Portugalliam invecta sunt ibique disposita vel adhuc manentia vel ab aliis seu eorum jussu inde revecta, dominis et proprietariis protinus. restituerentur vel reparatio et satisfactio pro iis daretur; et quoniam de mercatorum aliorumque postulatis, quae satisfactionem attinent, controversiae nonnullae etiam nunc supersunt; quo omnia istiusmodi postulata et querelae ex jure et aequo dijudicentur et determinentur, utrinque conventum, conclusum et concordatum est, quod dicta postulata ob damna ad arbitrium et satisfactionem referentur , sicut et his praesentibus referuntur ad judicium et sententiam doctoris Walteri Walker, Johannis Crowther, doctoris Hieronimi a Silva, secretarii legationis, et Francisci Ferreira Rebello, agentis in rebus ejusdem legationis, personarum indifferenter electarum tam ex parte regis Portugalliae quam domini protectoris, qui his praesentibus fiunt et constituuntur cognitores, arbitri, judices ad audienda, examinanda et determinanda omnia et singula postulata et querelas omnium et singulorum mercatorum, nauclerorum aliorumque, qui jus sibi vindicant, ad omnes vel aliquas naves, pecunias, debita, mercantias, bonave quaecunque, quorum in dictis articulis praeliminaribus mentio facta est; qui arbitri convenient et considebunt in urbe Londino vigesimo die Julii proximi styl. vet. atque eodem die solemne juramentum suscipient coram judicibus supremae curiae admiralitatis Angliae, se in rebus, ad se relatis, dijudicandis omni favori et respectui erga partem alterutram omnique privato commodo renunciaturos: atque his praesentibus instruuntur et autoritate muniuntur ad personas quascunque accersendas, nec non depositiones et chartulas sibi adferri jubendas, quae rem sibi commissam spectaverint. Et vel juramento adhibito vel non adhibito, omnium istiusmodi postulatorum querelarumque veritatem nec non omnia et singula damna ex dictis arrestationibus et detentionibus illata summatim examinabunt, et dicti arbitri his praesentibus autoritate muniuntur ad singula praemissa definienda damnaque liquidanda, adjudicanda et finaliter determinanda, prout ipsi vel major eorum pars in conscientiis et sanis suis discretionibus justum et aequum censuerint, et ad finalem suam sententiam sub chirographis suis publicandam; quae sententia ita publicata utramque partem devinciet et obligabit absque appellatione, revisione vel reclamatione quibuscunque. Atque idem rex ad eandem efficaciter praestandam et observandam in omnibus ejus membris el capitulis sese obligat nec non ad solvendum vel solvi curandum talem summam vel summas pecuniarum, quae, uti praedictum

est, adjudicabuntur. Atque ulterius conventum est, quod, si dicti arbitri non consenserint et finaliter determinaverint de et super praemissis ad se relatis intra primum Septembris secuturum styl. vet., tunc dicta postulata a dictis arbitris indeterminata vel indecisa ita submittantur, sicut et his praesentibus submittuntur tali personae domino protectori a consiliis, quam dictus dominus protector intra quodcunque tempus post primum Septembris proximi nominaverit. In quem finem dictus dominus protector tali personae taliter nominatae autoritatum diploma dabit ad finaliter determinandum de et super omnibus et singulis postulatis praedictis. Et si ante datam a dicto consiliario sententiam chartae nonnullae Lusitania pervenerint, vel procurator ad aliquas ex iis causas agendas, dictus consiliarius eum de novo audiet. Quaecunque sententia a tali persona taliter instructa sub chirographo et sigillo suo lata fuerit, utramque partem concludet et obligabit, eaque rite praestabitur et perficietur. Atque in majorem cautelam et securitatem, quod ejusmodi pecuniae summa, quae vel a dictis arbitris vel ab arbitro adjudicabitur, bona fide solvetur, conclusum et conventum est, quod una medietas vectigalium et custumarum Portugalliae proxime post datum tractatus ex omnibus bonis et merchandisis quibuscunque incolarum et populorum reipubl., qui in Portugallia commercantur, provenientium solutioni impendetur. Quae medietas de tempore in tempus tali personae solvetur, quam praedictus dominus protector nominaverit, unde mercatorum, nauclerorum et proprietariorum damna resarciantur.

XXVI. Item conclusum et concordatum est, quod praesens pax et confoederatio non derogabitur per quamcunque aliam ligam vel confoederationem, factam vel fiendam a serenissimis dominis protectore Angliae et rege Portugalliae cum quibuscunque aliis principibus vel rebus publicis, sed quod pax et confoederatio integre servetur et semper suum sortiatur effectum.

XXVII. Item conventum et conclusum est, quod utraque pars vere et firmiter observabit atque executioni mandabit praesentem tractatum omniaque et singula in eo contenta et comprehensa atque eadem ab alterutrius populo, subditis et incolis observari et praestari ellicaciter curabit.

XXVIII. Item conventum, conclusum et concordatum est, quod praesens tractatus atque omnia et singula in eo contenta et conclusa a dictis domino protectore et rege per patentes utriusque partis literas sigillo magno munitas debita et authentica forma intra sex menses proxime insequentes confirmabuntur et rata habebuntur mutuaque instrumenta intra praedictum tempus hinc inde extradentur, nec non et pax haec et confoederatio statim a traditis et permutatis instrumentis forma et loco solitis publicabitur.

In quorum omnium fidem et testimonium tam nos commissarii celsitudinis suae domini protectoris, quam legatus extraordinarius serenissimi regis vi et vigore nostrarum respective commissionum et procurationum praesentem tractatum manu propria subsignavimus et sigillis nostris manualibus munivimus. Actum Westmonasterii die decimo Julii anno millesimo sexcentesimo quinquagesimo quarto.

Treaty of commerce and navigation
between Great Britain and Portugal.

Signed at
RIO DE JANEIRO,
the 19th February 1810.

In the Name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity.

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, being equally animated with the desire not only of consolidating and strengthening the ancient friendship and good understanding which so happily subsist, and have during so many ages subsisted between the two Crowns but also of improving and extending the beneficial effects thereof to the mutual advantage of their respective subjects, have thought that the most efficacious means for obtaining these objets would be, to adopt a liberal system of Commerce, founded upon the basis of reciprocity and mutual convenience, which, by discontinuing certain prohibitions and prohibitory Duties, might procure the most solid advantages, on both sides, to the National Productions and Industry, and give due protection at the same time to the Public Revenue, and to the interests of fair and legal trade. For this end, His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, have named for Their respective Commissioners and Plenipotenliaires, to wit, His Britannic Majesty the Most Illustrious and Most Excellent Lord Percy Clinton Sidney, Lord Viscount and Baron of Strangford, one of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, Knight of the Military Order of the Bath, Grand Cross of the Portugueze Order of the Tower and Sword, and His Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of Portugal; and His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, the Most Illustrious and Most Excellent Lord Dom Rodrigo de Sousa Couttinho, Count of Linhares, Lord of Payalvo, Commander of the Order of Christ, Grand Cross of the Orders of Saint Bento and of the Tower and Sword, one of His Royal Highness' Council of State, and His Principal Secretary of State for the Departments of Foreign Affairs and War; who, after having duly exchanged Their respective full Powers, and having found them in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles :

1. There shall be a sincere and perpetual friendship between His Britannic Majesty and His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, and between Their heirs and successors; and there shall be a constant and universal peace and harmony between themselves, Their heirs and successors, Kingdoms, Dominions, Provinces, Countries, Subjects and Vassals, of whatsoever quality or condition they be, without exception of person, or place; and the stipulations of this present Article shall, under the favour of Almighty God, be permanent and perpetual.

II. There shall be reciprocal liberty of Commerce and Navigation between and amongst the respective subjects of the two High Contracting Parties, in all and several the Territories and Dominions of either. They may trade, travel, sojourn, or establish themselves, in all and several the Ports, Cities, Towns, Countries, Provinces, or places whatsoever belonging to each and either of the two High Contracting Parties, except and save in those from which all foreigners whatsoever are generally and positively excluded, the names of which places may be hereafter specified in a separate Article of this Treaty. Provided, however, that it be thoroughly understood that any place belonging to either of the two High Contracting Parties which may hereafter be opened to the Commerce of the subjects of any other country, shall thereby be considered as equally opened, and upon correspondent terms, to the subjects of the other High Contracting Party, in the same manner as if it had been expressly stipulated by the present Treaty. And His Britannic Majesty, and His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, do hereby bind and engage themselves not to grant any favour, privilege, or immunity in matters of Commerce and Navigation, to the subjects of any other State, which shall not be also at the same time respectively extended to the subjects of the High Contracting Parties, gratuitously, if the concession in favour of that other State should have been gratuitous, and on giving, quam proxime, the same compensation or equivalent, in case the concession should have been conditional.

III. The subjects of the two Sovereigns respectively shall not pay in the Ports, Harbours, Roads, Cities, Towns, or Places whatsoever, belonging to either of them, any greater duties, taxes, or imposts (under whatsoever names they may be designated or included) than those that are paid by the subjects of the most favoured nation, and the subjects of each of the High Contracting Parties shall enjoy within the Dominions of the other, the same rights, privileges, liberties, savours, immunities, or exemptions; in matters of Commerce and Navigation, that are granted, or may hereafter be granted to the subjects of the most favoured nation.

IV. His Britannic Majesty, and His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, do stipulate and agree, that there shall be a perfect reciprocity on the subject of the duties and imposts to be paid by the ships and vessels of the High Contracting Parties, within the several ports, harbours, roads, and anchoring places belonging to each of them; to wit, that the ships and vessels of the subjects of His Britannic Majesty shall not pay any higher duties or imposts (under whatsoever name they be designated or implied) within the Dominions of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, than the ships and vessels belonging to the subjects of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal shall be bound to pay within the Dominions of His Britannic Majesty, and vice versâ. And this agreement and stipulation shall particularly and expressly extend to the payment of the duties known by the name of port charges, tonnage, and anchorage Duties, which shall not

in any case, or under any pretext, be greater for British ships and vessels within the Dominions of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, than for Portuguese ships and vessels within the Dominions of His Britannic Majesty, and vice versa.

V. The two High Contracting Parties do also agree, that the same rates of bounties and drawbacks shall be established in their respective ports upon the exportation of goods and merchandises, whether those goods or merchandises be exported in British or in Portuguese ships and vessels, that is, that British ships and vessels shall enjoy the same favour in this respect, within the Dominions of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, that may be shewn to Portuguese ships and vessels within the Dominions of His Britannic Majesty, and vice versâ. The two High Contracting Parties do also agree, that goods and merchandises coming respectively from the ports of either of them, shall pay the same duties, whether imported in British or in Portuguese ships or vessels; or otherwise, that an increase of duties may be imposed and exacted upon goods and merchandises coming into the ports of the Dominions of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal from those of His Britannic Majesty in British ships, equivalent, and in exact proportion to any increase of duties that may hereafter be imposed upon goods and merchandises coming into the ports of His Britannic Mayesty from those of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, imported in Portuguese ships. And in order that this matter may be settled with due exactness, and that nothing may be left undetermined concerning it, it is agreed, that Tables shall be drawn by each government, respectively, specifying the difference of duties to be paid on goods and merchandises so imported in British or Portuguese ships and vessels; and the said Tables (which shall be made applicable to all the ports within the respective Dominions of each of the Contracting Parties) shall be declared and adjudged to form part of this present Treaty.

In order to avoid any differences or misunderstanding with respect to the regulations which may respectively constitute a British or Portuguese vessel, the High Contracting Parties agree in declaring, that all vessels built in the Dominions of His Britannic Majesty, and owned, navigated, and registered according to the laws of Great Britain, shall be considered as British vessels: and that all ships or vessels built in the countries belonging to His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, or in any of them, or ships taken by any of the ships or vessels of war belonging to the Portuguese government, or any of the inhabitants of the Dominions of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, having commissions or letters of marque and reprisal from the Government of Portugal, and condemned as lawful prize in any Court of Admiralty of the said Portuguese Government, and owned by the subjects of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, or any of them, and whereof the master and three-fourths of the mariners, at least,

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